Elzinga Flash Seminar

Feature | 06/28/2021

Blog: Making the Most of Your Summer Internship/Work Experience

How to Make the Most of Your Summer Internship/Work Experiences

Whether it is virtual, in-person, or a bit of both, your summer work experience is a chance to build skills, relationships, and possibly parlay the internship into a full-time offer or renewed employment!
Think of the summer as an extended job interview - where you are getting the chance to be a first-pick for full-time work, and you are determining if this is an employer/job function that interests you!

Plan Your Internship!

Design goals for yourself. These may be:

  • skills or concepts you'd like to build (For example MSExcel, Python, data analysis, Tableau, project management, etc.)
  • projects you'd like to design (Design a website, analyze data and produce a written and oral report)
  • relationships you'd like to build (Meet 5 people in the organization through a virtual or in-person meeting)
  • experiences you'd like to have (Attend a staff meeting of senior-level team members; represent your team on a committee)
  • meet with your hiring manager to discuss relevant goals (some may be your personal goals and not for your supervisor's consumption)

Interview! (Yes, you are conducting the interviews!)

  • You want to learn more about this employer, your job function, and the industry. Can you see yourself working with this organization? With this supervisor?
  • ​Spend time in the office (if possible) to learn about Team Culture and Employer Culture (These are not always the same.)
  • You can learn about the firm's virtual culture through their interactions with you and your peers/colleagues
  • Schedule 15 minutes with staff in varying roles and levels, starting with those working full-time in your possible future role
  • Get to know people, both by reaching out and developing a positive reputation. 
  • Stay connected to your recruiter 

Get Involved!

  • Attend events (in-person or virtual) that you are invited to
  • ​Ask questions of your supervisor or recruiter
  • Join clubs or affinity groups, especially if your employer is large and has organized groups for employees/interns ​

Find a Mentor/Employee You Trust

  • Your mentor may be assigned to you through a formal program in which case make the most of the opportunity
  • ​Find a mentor, or someone with whom you feel comfortable and may ask questions. This is not always possible; but, don't be shy about asking other employees to meet with you in person or virtually to discuss their work. You may hit it off and find an informal mentor
  • Mentors can help you navigate through new situations at work
  • Mentors can be future advocates for you with your current employer or a future employer

Document Your Work!

  • Catalog all of your projects in a notebook or spreadsheet
  • List these by responsibilities and results
  • Brainstorm the skills you used and developed and the people with whom you worked to get the work done
  • Add this information to your resume and LinkedIn account
  • Create a website (wix.com or wordpress.com) to showcase your work, if applicable
  • Practice speaking about your summer experiences
  • Record the names and contact information of the people you worked with and connect with them on LinkedIn

Next, read the article from the PennyHoarder Rock Summer Your Internship!

Adapted from the Muse and the ECO's summer internship PowerPoint, How to Make the Most of Your Summer Internship and alum Sabrina Grandhi's recommendations.

Elzinga Flash Seminar

Feature | 09/10/2021

ECO Article: 4 Ways to Handle Interview Questions You Don't Know How to Answer

by Lily Zhang at The Muse

Preparing for interviews is serious business. But even if you practice, and practice, and practice, you could still get a question you just don’t know how to answer. Whether it’s a technical question on something you’ve never heard of before or just something completely unexpected, a question that stumps you can really throw off the pacing of the conversation and leave you a bit shaken up.

So, what should you do when you get interview questions that you have no idea how to respond to? Try one of these pain-free approaches.

1. Take Your Time

First things first: Acknowledge that the question was asked and that you’re thinking about it. Something as simple as, “Hmm…that’s a great question. Let me think about that,” will suffice as you take some time to work through your first thoughts on how to approach the question.

This is important to remember, especially since it’s so natural to fill up any empty airspace with words to avoid awkward silences. Take a bit of time to gather your thoughts and make sure you don’t blurt out anything that gives away that you’re—well, completely stumped.

2. Think Aloud

Remember that half the time, hiring managers are asking tricky questions not to hear you spurt out the right answer immediately, but to get a better sense of how you think through problems. So, after you’ve taken a minute to gather your thoughts, try explaining succinctly where your thoughts have been and go forward from there.

For example, if you get asked something like, “Tell me about your copyediting process for long form articles,” and you don’t actually have a process (yet), a good approach would be to imagine that you’re editing that article and share the steps out loud. Add transitional adverbs like “first,” “then,” and “lastly” to give your answer some structure. You can also finish off with a qualifying statement that “the process varies depending on the situation,” which shows that you’re flexible even if your answer isn’t what the hiring manager would do.

3. Redirect

If you’re asked a question that you really can’t work through, own up and try redirecting to an area you are familiar with. You may not be able to speak to a certain skill directly, but if you’re able to connect it to similar skills, you’re much better off than just saying you don’t have the skill they’re looking for.

For example, say you applied for a position that requires social media marketing experience and are asked about your experience in this type of marketing. If you simply don’t have it, try redirecting the answer to something you do have experience with.

In this instance, you could move toward your experience in social media community management or print marketing and say, “That’s one of the reasons I’m so excited about this position. I have extensive experience in social media community management from blogging in my previous position, as well as experience with print marketing for my professional organization. I think I’m very well equipped to combine these two skills into the necessary social media marketing for your product, especially since your company has been focusing its efforts in building up a community.”

4. Have a Fail-Safe

Of course, you might get a question that no amount of stalling, thinking aloud, or redirecting can help with. Questions that call for definitions or understanding of concepts that you don’t know can’t just be worked through on the spot. For these questions, lean on the research you’ve done about the company and industry the position is in.

Say you’re applying for a mergers and acquisitions position in finance and are asked, “What is working capital?”—and you really just have no idea. Be prepared with a fail-safe answer that focuses on your enthusiasm for the position and knowledge of the industry. Something like, “That’s not a concept I’m really familiar with yet, but finance is something I’m really excited about, and I’ve been actively trying to learn more. I’ve been keeping up with deals and have read about a few that your company has been involved in. I’ve also learned a lot about the industries that you advise. I think the consolidation that’s going on in the auto industry is going to create a lot of interesting opportunities going forward, and it’ll be an opportunity to learn a great deal about the M&A business.”

Above all, learn from all your interview experiences. And remember that regardless of what question you get, consider what the hiring manager is really trying to learn from the question. You may not be able to answer the actual question asked, but if you’re able to figure out what the hiring manager is really trying to learn with the question and assuage whatever concern he or she might have—you’ve already done well.


Elzinga Flash Seminar

Feature | 03/28/2018


"The deal is the toast of the season globally. But do you know who advised Facebook? The logical answers would be Goldman Sachs, Morgan Stanley, UBS, and DeutscheBank, etc. Surprisingly, it’s a firm called Allen & Company." -Avadhut Nigudkar

Click here to read the rest of the article

Feature | 10/05/2018

4th Year Moogdho Mahzab leads Impact Evaluation Training in Bangladesh

This short course provided training on impact evaluation on quasi-experimental research. Participants learnt about important econometric techniques used in policy research design. Those techniques included but were not limited to matching, instrumental variables, propensity score weighting, regression discontinuity and panel data methods.  A separate session introduced participants to the features of randomized controlled trials.  The two days of training focused on using programming languages like STATA in hands-on empirical exercises, understanding and comparing the identification strategies associated with different econometric methods, assessing the robustness of results and learning efficient ways to report them. It was organized by the South Asian Network on Economic Modeling (SANEM). The approximately 25 participants--including young researchers from different research organizations, young faculty members from private and public universities, and central bank officials—offered very positive feedback on the program. 

Feature | 05/08/2019

Macro Grad Students Successfully Complete the ERC

In the Econ Department's 2019 Economic Research Conference (ERC), from April 30th to May 2nd, our third year graduate students presented and defended their dissertation proposals. The picture shows our macro graduate students and faculty at the successful completion of the research conference.

Feature | 04/15/2018


In April 2018, 4th year student Devaki Ghose, presented a paper at a workshop--cohosted by the World Trade Organization (WTO), the International Monetary Fund (IMG), the World Bank (WB), and the Center for Economic Policy (CEP)--held at the WTO’s Geneva headquarters, titled Trade Policy, Inclusiveness and the Rise of the Service Economy. The workshop’s goal: to dig deeper into the question of how and to what extent services trade can benefit from removing barriers to trade and how these benefits can translate into positive societal outcomes. From a field of established presenters and authors, including many professors from prestigious universities, such as the London School of Economics and the University of Nottingham, as well as policy practitioners from international organizations such as the WTO, IMF, WB and the OECD, Devaki was one of 10 selected to offer a full 45-minute presentation. In her paper, “Did the Rise of Service Off-shoring and IT-Boom Change India’s Economic Landscape?”, she quantifies how the rise in the India’s IT industry, fueled by off-shoring demand from abroad, changed India’s growth story by looking at changes in educational outcomes, employment and wages; she also studies how this IT boom was fostered by the growth of engineering education in India. Devaki, who has previously presented at conferences and seminars at Dartmouth college, University of Nottingham, the Lindau Nobel Laureates Meeting and the Eastern Economic Association Conference, described the workshop as “a unique opportunity to present my work to both academicians and policy makers. I believe feedback from this audience will enrich my research and help me develop future collaborations with co-authors in my field.”

Feature | 12/11/2019

Ramiro Burga Presents Paper on Bilingual Education at APPAM Conference

In November, Ramiro Burga presented his paper “Fixing an Instructional Mismatch: The Case of Bilingual Education among Indigenous Students in Peru” at the 2019 Fall Research Conference of the Association for Public Policy Analysis & Management in Denver, Colorado. In this paper, he studies the effects of a bilingual education reform that targets indigenous populations and intends to correct the mismatch that exists between the language of instruction (status-quo language) and the students' mother tongue. The results of his research suggests that students progress faster towards upper grades as a result of the policy. 

Feature | 08/16/2021

ECO Blog: Job Seekers! What You Should Be Doing Now

Hello Majors!

I've been thinking about what to write to you all today and decided to use some inspiration from my friend and colleague, executive coach, Elizabeth Hope Derby. In Elizabeth's recent newsletter, she discusses her kickboxing experience and uses the kickboxing metaphor ultimately to describe how many of us  "stretch a little bit harder, jump two inches higher. [Who] share this desire to push beyond our limits and savor the satisfaction of a really good stretch." This is how I view our majors, as people, who stretch. But, beware stretchers, as Elizabeth warns in her newsletter through personal narrative, there is a point at which we may push "past 'stretched' to 'stretched too thin.'" Elizabeth suggests "marry[ing] the ambition of your brain with the intelligence of your body." 

I want all of our majors to keep this in mind as you begin the semester next week. You will have myriad commitments in addition to the most important, your academic coursework, and there will be times when it may be useful to examine how "stretched" you are and if you need to rebalance. Below this blog are resources to help prevent and mitigate stretching-too-thin.  Now, having said that, I'm sharing below my many recommendations to prepare for your career exploration and job search this academic year. There is a lot! However you approach reading this list and taking action, keep in mind the stretch and stretching-too-thin. There's a lot listed below and you may want to pace yourself rather than take from the buffet all in one pass.

1 - Update your resume, Handshake profile, LInkedIn profile with any summer experiences you have had and have these critiqued by VMOCK and career counselors:​

  • ​Research (your own, work-related, or from a class)
  • Classes that are relevant to the work you are pursuing, (include UVA, community college, Coursera, LinkedIn Learning, etc.)
  • Work experience - include all of your accomplishments and responsibilities on a general resume, and then draw from them as you customize your resumes by industry and job function before submitting
  • Personal accomplishments in a Skills and Interests section - If you trained for a marathon, taught yourself guitar, learned a language, etc, this is information to include in a resume (See me or UVA Career Center to discuss further)
  • Update your GPA
  • Click here for resume and cover letter samples and review the UVA Hoos Career Guide for more

​2 - Handshake (Take these action steps, at the very least):

  • Update your work preferences by industry, job function, and geographic location. This allows alerts from the ECO and from employers
  • Determine if you'd like your profile viewable by employers
  • Take the On Grounds Interview (OGI) survey to be sure you are eligible to attend employer and alumni office hours, and apply for jobs by employers recruiting on Grounds
  • Review events and jobs by date to prepare yourself for upcoming relevant programs

3 - Self-Assessment:

4 - Job Applications and Interviews:

  • Familiarize yourself with recruiting calendar for the employers that interest you (pages 46-47 in the Hoos Career Guide)
  • Familiarize yourself with the types of application materials (resumes, cover letters, assessments, interviews) that are used in your sector/industries/job functions of interest
    • HireVue is a virtual job application platform. Many employers use this or other similar video assessments as screening tools
    • Pymetrics is a personality assessment many employers ask applicants to submit; there are many other types. Don't stress over these! 
    • VMock - an AI tool to help you prep your resume and your elevator pitch and perfect your LInkedIn profile
  • Visit job boards 

And if you want more....check out the ECO's suggested timeline of activities here.

Balancing resources:




Feature | 08/06/2021

Blog: 8.9.2021 The Power of Weak Ties

Hello Majors!

Networking, building relationships! This blog is about this daunting, exciting, intimidating, and rewarding process of building connections.

I recently connected with 1990 econ alum Brian Ramsay, President of private equity firm, Littlejohn & Co. I met Brian through Professor Elzinga. Brian had written to Professor Elzinga because he had been interviewed on a podcast (link below) where he discussed the power of weak ties, something those of you who took Econ 2010 with Professor Elzinga may remember from lectures. Through this email, Professor Elzinga connected Brian and me at the ECO and now I'm sharing Brian's remarks about networking with you. And, it is my hope that in the coming year, Brian will spend time with our majors in the department in-person or virtually. This story demonstrates perfectly the power of networking and building relationships. (During the podcast, you'll also learn about private equity from Brian and the importance of financial analysis skills and . To reach Brian's networking remarks, skip to the 10:00 minute mark.) So much of the work that the ECO undertakes is to set the table for you to join the conversation with our economics alumni and employers.  And while we all have independent networks, which are forged from the building blocks of our own families, friends, and experiences outside of UVA, our goal in the ECO is to share the cultural wealth of our UVA community. We will talk much more about this together in ECO programs and individual advising, but for now, take a listen to Brian Ramsay's interview with "Top of the Pile."


Then, take action and reach out to one professional to practice your informational interviewing. This could be a relative, family friend, friend's family member, your family physician...you get the picture. Use these links to draft your email/phone call script to secure the meeting and then this link to prepare for the call. Send me a message to let me know how it goes!  We will include your comments in an upcoming newsletter.

And, please believe me that asking for help now from alumni and other professionals is completely appropriate and expected. The day will come when you will pay it forward by helping upcoming majors who will be in the shoes you once filled.

Link to ECO website and professional development

Link to How to Write a Networking Email That Gets Results

Elzinga Flash Seminar

Feature | 08/11/2021

Virtual Career Fairs: Best Practices! How to Plan and Attend


by Victorio Duran III | August 05, 2021

It isn’t easy to stand out at in-person job fairs, and leaving a lasting impression with employers at virtual job fairs can be just as challenging. However, if you follow the eight tips below, you’ll have no difficulty making meaningful professional connections and differentiating yourself from other candidates.

1. Update your profile and resume

Your resume and professional profiles, especially your LinkedIn profile, need to be up to date. Ensure that your resume is as comprehensive as possible. Don’t skimp on information—and certainly make sure to include key words and quantifiable achievements. Also, make sure your polished, error-free resume is available in both PDF and Word files, and available on your desktop so you can access it and upload it easily. All of this is important during fairs because employers use the information on your resume and profile to see if you match their requirements.

2. Do your research

For employers you’re interested in, go the extra mile while researching them. Find out about the opportunities they offer and their cultures. This allows you to better determine if they might be good fits for you, and to customize your resume and profile to their requirements. In addition, doing your research shows recruiters at the career fair that you did your homework and are interested in working for them. The more you know about a company’s products, employee culture, social media presence, standing in the market, etc., the more topics you’ll have to talk about—and the more likely you are to make a lasting impression.

3. Prepare to ask questions       

Answering questions is so passé. To stand out from the competition, you need to ask questions—and you have every right to do so. Show off the research you’ve done and prepare a list of questions for recruiters. You might ask about company culture, retention rate, growth plans, how a company is managing in these difficult times, and how a company’s work environment has changed in the wake of Covid-19. Also, with everyone working from home, you might have legitimate concerns about starting a job remotely. So, ask about the communication tools the company uses to facilitate work from home, and whether they prefer Glip, Discord, or another collaboration software app.

4. Plan your day

You don’t want your lack of planning and organization getting in the way of making strong connections at virtual fairs. So, if you have trouble getting organized, there are many online productivity tools that can help. It also helps if you proceed step by step through each virtual fair. So, decide ahead of time which virtual stands you’d like to stop at and decide the questions you’ll be asking at each stop. In addition, familiarize yourself with the platform hosting the fair so you know how to go about it.

It’s extremely important to spend your time efficiently. You want to attend the career clinics and webinars but also make time for meeting with recruiters on a one-to-one basis. You don’t want to have all the information and knowledge on how to land a job but not get enough time to talk to the people actually offering one.

5. Draft an elevator pitch

It’s important to prepare an elevator pitch you can give to recruiters you meet at fairs. Time is of the essence, as there are typically hundreds of other candidates vying for recruiters’ attention. Making an impression with few words isn’t something most people can do on the spot and off the top of their heads. So, ahead of each fair, draft an elevator pitch thoughtfully, considering how you’ll approach each employer and what would you’d like to say.

It’s probable that instead of talking, you’ll have to text your pitch, so have your pitch ready to be copied and pasted. A little knowledge of the principles of copywriting wouldn’t go amiss to make an immediate impression and be able to sell yourself. And think short and sharp—briefly outline your academic and work background, and mention why you’d like to be part of an employer’s team.

6. Be professional

Even when you’re attending a virtual fair, you should dress to impress. Recruiters will be able to see you. Be as sharply dressed as you would for an in-person interview. This shows seriousness and will create a great first impression. Avoid clothing with patterns, and keep your background plain, simple, and clutter-free.  

Of course, don’t be late for the fair. Show up on time so you have a better chance of doing everything you want to do during the fair. If you’ve set prior appointments for personal meetings with recruiters, be there before they are. Doing so will make you come off as eager, well prepared, and someone who respects others’ busy schedules.

In addition, be professional in all your communication. A joke or two can be acceptable during conversations to lighten the mood, but too many jokes can make you seem not very serious and create the wrong impression. While it’s good to have things to talk about, limit your conversation to the company, the job, and the matter at hand.

7. Be real

To come off as your authentic self, especially on a virtual platform, isn’t easy. However, the best advice is to be yourself. Let your personality shine through, and don’t let your nerves get in the way. There’s no need to be nervous or worried that one single job fair will make or break your career—there will be many other fairs. Also, remember that genuine candidates stand out—they’re the ones recruiters will remember.

So, if you’re authentic as possible while also acting confidently and professionally, you’ll create a great first impression. Give honest answers to questions, relating answers to your personal life and struggles to give employers a quick idea of who you are. Of course, be cool-headed at all times, especially in response to tricky interview questions you didn’t anticipate. 

8. Close thoughtfully

If you want to make a truly lasting impression, you need to connect with employers after career fairs. So, make sure you ask for their contact information during the fair, and send them a formal email immediately afterward. You could also send them a LinkedIn request with a personalized message, thanking them for their time and summarizing the conversation you had. Mention the position you’re interested in, and remind them again why you’re a good fit. Keep it short, and ask to be informed of the next steps in the hiring process.

Victorio Duran III US is the Associate SEO Director at RingCentral, a global leader in cloud-based communications and internet phone service provider. He has over 13 years of extensive involvement in web and digital operations, with diverse experience as a web engineer, product manager, and digital marketing strategist.

Elzinga Flash Seminar

Feature | 11/02/2021

ECO Blog: Leadership and Rotational Programs - What They Are and Why You Should Consider Them

For our students who have a general interest in business, but are less focused on the industry or a particular job function, these programs may be for you. They are typically private sector programs, span industry and sometimes even extend into the think tank space or public sector, such as the Council on Foreign Relations' Young Professional Program or the US Government's Pathways Program. Most though, exist in the private sector and are used to recruit young, talented recent graduates into a firm's management pipeline. Employees typically spend a short period of time (3-6 months) in a division of the firm, such as marketing, operations, finance, or talent management, and rotate through several. Often employees are assigned a mentor and attend cohort-training with other peers in the program. Toward the end of the full rotation period, employees along with their managers, select a permanent placement. 

Below, I've included a few links to pique your interest. I've also included a link to a full list of programs. For some links, you may need to do a little more digging to find the correct link because websites continue to evolve throughout each academic year. For example, Mastercard's link has expired, but I was able to search their website for jobs that are considered part of their leadership program. Some firms also host summer rotation programs, such as the NFL.

Another tip, in any job search engine/job board, search by the keywords "management rotation" or "leadership rotation" to source these programs. Check out my search results on indeed by plugging in "junior rotational analyst." (If you're reading this blog in May, rather than in November, likely the yield will not be as high.) Of course this strategy is not the Holy Grail of the job search, but one more tool for your toolkit. The ECO recommends a full complement of resources including TWP (Talking with People - networking) to learn more about any job you find interesting and to broaden your search if you are getting stuck.

Below are selected Leadership Rotation Programs recruiting now:

Check out more programs here: https://www.careereducation.columbia.edu/resources/leadership-development-rotational-programs

Although the list of employers at the link above are categorized by industry, jobs across function exist with each firm. This means that you could work for a tech firm, but hold a finance position; or, you could work for a finance firm and hold a tech position. Please make an appointment with me to discuss your internship or job search in more detail.




Feature | 01/31/2022

Snigdha Das Presents as SEA

Snigdha Das presented her paper, "Corruption and the Golden Goose Effect in the Context of an Ink Bomb Task Experiment," which studies corrupt behavior across a dynamic setting. Snigdha presented the experimental design of the theoretical model along with some preliminary data observations gathered from pilot sessions in Professor Charles Holt's undergraduate class.

Elzinga Flash Seminar

Feature | 10/17/2016

From Vault: Prestigious Internships

"Today, Vault released its annual ranking of the 50 Most Prestigious Internships. This year, the ranking was based on a survey of more than 11,000 interns and former interns at more than 100 firms. Our survey asked interns to rate the prestige of other employers in order to determine which internships are the most desirable." (Derek Loosvelt)

Elzinga Flash Seminar

Feature | 08/12/2016

What Color Is Your Parachute?

Article on: Are You a Parachute Counselor, by Dick Bolles 

This article captures the essence of the book and students may want to read it independently, or follow up by checking out the book in its entirety.

Feature | 04/22/2020

Hundanol Kebede Presents Research at MWIEDC

Hundanol presents his paper, “The gains from market integration: The welfare effects of new rural roads in Ethiopia,” at the Midwest International Conference on Development Economics (MWIEDC), held at Purdue University. In his paper, he estimates the welfare gains from a massive rural road expansion project that doubled the total road length in the country between 2011 and 2015.  He uses tools from international trade theory and details household level data to quantify household-level welfare gains from the road expansion and how much of that is attributed to trade mechanisms. He shows that the road expansion increased market integration and village specialization in comparative advantage crops. One of the paper’s novel contributions is that it shows how increased road connectivity would cause household production decisions to be dictated by market prices rather than consumption preferences – commonly known as separability. That is, road connectivity decreases the correlation between household land allocation across different crops and budget allocation across crops. This leads to significant efficiency gains because land will be reallocated to crops that have higher market value.   

Elzinga Flash Seminar

Feature | 08/22/2016

Maintaining Connections through Your Internship

See tips on how to maintain the professional connections you make through your internship.

Feature | 08/01/2021

Blog: Economics Career Office - What You Can Be Doing Now

August 2, 2021

Hello Economics Majors,

My name is Jennifer Jones and I'm the Director of your Economics Career Office (ECO), which is dedicated to the career planning and preparation of our Economics majors. I'm looking forward to working with you this academic year as we all return to the Grounds. Hundreds of students used the ECO's services over the last year, and we welcome back our new and returning students. If you're just meeting us, please check us out at economics.virginia.edu/career, then click on "Students" to get to know us better.
It is truly a privilege for me to work in the Department of Economics focusing on career preparation and for you to have your very own career services office in Monroe Hall. The office was founded by your faculty and generous donors, the latter who are recognized on a donor plaque outside of Monroe 120. Check it out sometime!  Many of these alumni are working in jobs and fields that will surely interest you. 

A few items of note as we begin the year together and a couple of action items:

  • Connect with me on LinkedIn and join the Economics Alumni Group on LinkedIn. This will quickly connect you to hundreds of other economics alumni. (You need not have a comprehensive profile to connect with others. The basics are fine.) LI is also the place I post jobs for our graduates - entry-level and experienced.
  • I'm including here a link to our ECO timeline, which recommends a "syllabus/strategy" for your career planning based on your class year/graduation date. 
  • Different industries and sectors recruit at different times. Check out the recruiting timeline in the Hoos Career Guide (page 47) to learn more about who recruits when. Early fall tends to bring in large firms that know their hiring needs in advance.
  • You will receive a newsletter from the ECO most weeks when classes are in session. Currently, newsletters are being sent via Mailchimp, but we may move to Salesforce/Marketing Cloud over the next few weeks. We will keep you posted.
  • Attend the ECO Orientation on August 23! For those of you looking for internships and full-time jobs for this fall and beyond, please join me and alumnus Kenton Kivestu (Econ 2010 and Founder of RocketBlocks) on Monday, August 23 from 11 am-1 pm. Here you will be oriented to:
    • the dozens of resources available to you as Economics majors
    • a Resume Review session with real resumes from your peers in the department
    • Interviewing Techniques for Management and Strategy Consulting
    • a demonstration of the RocketBlocks platform, which the ECO licenses to help you prepare for consulting, product management, and product marketing
  • Update your profile in Handshake. Choose industries that interest you, geographic locations, and consider making your profile viewable to employers. Career Counselors and employers use this information to message you with relevant opportunities.
  • ECO appointments are held on Wednesdays and Thursdays. Check out Handshake for appointments. If our schedules don't align, please write to me at jlh7b@virginia.edu.
  • Our online resources include:

Our wonderful ECO student staff this year includes the students listed below. If you receive emails from them, please open them! We send Job Blasts (from alumni and employers), Event Blasts, and Resource Blasts. 

  • Carly Dotson (Economics and English Lanaguage and Literature 2022) Writer
  • Ella Fendley (Media Studies, 2024) Marketing Coordinator
  • Flora Kim (Economics and Commerce, 2023) Senior Event Coordinator
  • Chloe Leo (Psychology, 2022) Senior Event Coordinator
  • Luca Pfeiffer (Media Studies, 2022) Media Designer
  • Maggie Rutherford (Economics and Media Studies, 2024) Event Coordinator
  • Mithra Dhinakaran (Economics and Foreign Affairs, 2023)
  • Robbie Eriksson (Economics and Computer Science, 2022) Salesforce Coordinator

Our Student Advisory Board (ECOSAB) meets bi-weekly to discuss career office programming and to plan the annual Economics Undergraduate Career Forum. You may reach out to the Chairperson with questions or comments in addition to writing to me. The Board Members are:

  • Brian Buck (Economics, 2024) Board member
  • Bryson Webb (Economics, 2022) Board member
  • Jenna Short (Economics and Statistics 2022) Board member
  • Kaitlyn Ockerman (Economics and Statistics, 2022) Chairperson
  • Wendy Tang (Economics and Computer Science, 2022) Board member
  • Zach Garfinkel (Economics, Statistics, Commerce, 2023) Board member

Please remember to join us for the August 23 ECO Orientation and on September 3 for our Major to Major Career Coaching Fair.

Until next week when I'll write with more tips and advice, wishing you a wonderful week.

Best regards,

Jen Jones Director, Economics Career Office

Elzinga Flash Seminar

Feature | 02/10/2023

57 Smart Questions to Ask in a Job Interview in 2023

Article from The Muse 

You’re sitting under the fluorescent lights of an unfamiliar conference room across from the person who may decide the fate of your job search, trying desperately to remember that perfect story you prepared and wondering if the AC is always set to ‘arctic blast.’ Or maybe you’re at home in front of the most professional wall in your apartment, looking at your interviewer on a computer screen and hoping your camera won’t shift and reveal the stack of empty La Croix cans you forgot to move before the Zoom call started. 

Then, the hiring manager asks the interview question you know is a signal that things are about to wrap up: “Do you have any questions for me?”

You probably already know that whether you’re stressed or relaxed, whether you think you’ve fumbled the conversation badly or you’ve got this job in the bag, the worst thing you could say is, “Nope, I’m good.”

An interview isn’t just a chance for the hiring manager to grill you—it’s your opportunity to sniff out whether a position would be as great for you as you would be for the position. So it’s vital to ask some questions of your own. What do you want to know about the role? The company? The department? The team? The person interviewing you who may be your future boss, coworker, or mid-afternoon coffee buddy?

To get you thinking, we’ve put together a list of key questions to ask in an interview. We definitely don’t suggest asking all of them rapid-fire—some of this stuff will be covered during the course of your discussion, and you can always ask questions throughout the conversation. Plus, you will sound like you’re reading the questions off some sort of internet list and not truly listening to their answers. You should also customize these questions to the specific opportunity or ask tailored questions that show you’re invested in the position and you’ve been paying attention throughout the interview process.

So this list isn’t the be-all and end-all—it’s your jumping off point.

Best questions to ask about the job

Make sure you have a handle on exactly what the day-to-day responsibilities of the job will be—both now and in the future. This will help you make an informed decision if and when that job offer comes and avoid Shift Shock.

  • What does a typical day or week look like in this role? (Or one of these alternatives.)
  • What are the most immediate projects that need to be addressed?
  • Can you show me examples of projects I’d be working on?
  • What are the skills and experiences you’re looking for in an ideal candidate?
  • What attributes does someone need to have in order to be really successful in this position?
  • What types of skills is the team missing that you’re looking to fill with a new hire?
  • What are the biggest challenges that someone in this position would face?
  • What sort of budget would I be working with?
  • Is this a new role or will I be taking over for an employee who’s leaving?
  • How does this position contribute to the company overall?
  • Do you expect the main responsibilities for this position to change in the next six months to a year?

Top questions to ask about training and professional development

Think of each new opportunity not just as a job, but as the next step on your path to career success. Will this position help you get there?

  • What does your onboarding process look like?

  • What learning and professional development opportunities are available to your employees?
  • Will there be opportunities for stretch assignments where I can learn and use new skills?
  • Are there opportunities for advancement within the company?
  • Would I be able to represent the company at industry conferences?
  • Where have successful employees previously in this position progressed to?

Common questions to ask about how your success will be evaluated

Understanding how your potential new manager will measure your success is key to understanding their managerial style as well as company or team priorities.

  • What are the most important things you’d like to see someone accomplish in the first 30, 60, and 90 days on the job?

  • What are the performance expectations of this position over the first 12 months?
  • What is the performance review process like here? How often would I be formally reviewed?
  • What metrics or goals will my performance be evaluated against?

Smart questions to ask about the interviewer

Asking these questions shows that you’re interested in your interviewer as a person—and that’s a great way to build rapport with a future colleague.

  • How long have you been with the company?

  • Has your role changed since you’ve been here?
  • What did you do before this?
  • Why did you come to this company?
  • What’s your favorite part about working here?
  • What’s one challenge you occasionally or regularly face in your job?
  • What part of your job are you most excited about over the next few months?
  • Are there any upcoming initiatives or projects you’re especially interested in?

Best questions to ask about the company

Why not learn a little bit about where you might work? A job isn’t just about your day-to-day to-do list. You’ll likely be happier with an employer that shares similar values to yours and is headed in a direction you’re on board with.

  • I’ve read about the company’s founding, but can you tell me more about [another significant company development] ?

  • What direction do you see this company heading in over the next few years?
  • What can you tell me about your new products or plans for growth?
  • What are the current goals that the company is focused on, and how does this team work to support hitting those goals?
  • What gets you most excited about the company’s future?
  • What are the company’s most important values? (Note: Make sure this isn’t easily Google-able!)
  • How does the company ensure it’s upholding its values?

Smart questions to ask about the team

The people you work with day in and day out can really make or break your work life. Ask some questions to uncover whether it’s the right team for you.

  • Can you tell me about the team I’ll be working with?
  • Who will I work with most closely?
  • Who will I report to directly?
  • Can you tell me about my direct reports?
  • What are the team’s biggest strengths and challenges?
  • Do you expect to hire more people in this department in the next six months?
  • Which other departments work most closely with this one and how?

Creative questions to ask about the culture

You don’t want to end up at a workplace where all socialization happens at happy hour if you don’t drink or you need to get home to your kids, or where everyone is focused solely on their own work if you thrive in a collaborative environment, for example. So make sure you ask about what’s important to you when it comes to company culture.

  • How would you describe the work environment here—is the work typically more collaborative or more independent?

  • How does the team form and maintain strong bonds?
  • Can you tell me about the last company event you did together?
  • What’s your favorite office tradition?
  • What do you and the team usually do for lunch?
  • Does anyone at the company or on this team hang out outside the office?
  • Do you ever do joint events with other companies or departments?
  • What’s different about working here than anywhere else you’ve worked?
  • How has the company changed since you joined?
  • How has the organization overcome challenges with remote work?
  • How does the company make sure that remote and hybrid employees are given the same opportunities and standards as in-office employees?


Elzinga Flash Seminar

Feature | 06/07/2018

How to Answer "What Sets You Apart from the Rest"

An extremely common interview question these days is some form of "What sets you apart from the rest of the candidates for this job?" Other incarnations of this question include "Why should we hire you?" and "What makes you so different from all the other people interviewing for this position?" No matter exactly how this question is worded, it's getting at the same thing: what are your greatest strengths and skills, what might make you unique, and how those strengths and skills and uniqueness will translate into success in the position you're interviewing for.


Feature | 08/24/2017

ECON Grads at the 6th Lindau meeting on Economic Sciences

Graduate student Devaki Ghose was selected among young economists through a combination of written application and interviews to be a panelist alongside Eric Maskin (Nobel Laureate, Economics) and Howard Yana Shapiro (Chief Agricultural Scientist, Mars Incorporated) to discuss economic inequality in a globalized world on August 24th.


The panelists first discussed their views on economic inequality, solutions and then the forum was open to questions from the audience. The following articles cover the event-





ECONGrads Cailin Slattery and Ia Vardishvilli also participated in the conference.

Ia presenting her work to laureates (you can see Pissardes in the picture).

Cailin with the other NSF sponsored students at a lunch with two laureates (standing next to Prescott).

Elzinga Flash Seminar

Feature | 09/20/2021

ECO Blog: Preparing for Interviews

ECO Blog: Interviewing

I enjoy interviews! Sounds crazy, right? You may be thinking that I'm referring to being on the giving side of the interview. True! But, I also enjoy being interviewed. Each conversation is an opportunity to speak about my experiences and make the case for why I am a good fit for a job, volunteer opportunity, or leadership opportunity. It's also a great opportunity to learn if the interviewer's organization is a good fit for me. I always learn something. And along the way, I usually meet some interesting people and hear their stories. Did I like interviewing when I was a student at UVA and looking for a job? After the first couple of times - somewhat - I came to understand and appreciate the process. Was I anxious during my first case interview? You bet, but I got through it and so will you. And today, I really enjoy the process. What has led to this general increase in enjoyment? In one word...Practice! 

Most of our majors will enter the labor market as full-time employees at some point in the next 3 years, some as soon as January 2022. Many of you have interviewed for part-time jobs, internships, and even full-time jobs already. Many more will follow suit this fall. For those headed to graduate school, the job interview may be postponed a couple of years, but likely by the quarter-century mark, most of you will have participated in several job interviews. My guess is that each person who has interviewed for more than one job is more confident and comfortable the second time than the first, and even more so after the tenth or twentieth. The biggest takeaway from today's blog posting is to practice for your interviews.

There are many categories of interviews and interview formats and here's a link here for you to review those. Most important for our purposes are the Screening Interview/HireVue formatBehavioral Interview, and the Case Interview. The Screening Interview may be resume-based or behavioral. And all of these interview types likely are virtual these days. The screening interview may be a recorded interview, and this recorded interview often replaces an initial call with a recruiter. Following the interviews or between interviews, candidates may be asked to take assessments for technical abilities and a personality assessment. Some personality assessments are built in-house by employers and others are sourced from third-party firms like Pymetrics.

Below is a list of tips to help you succeed in your interviews, followed by some of my favorite interviewing articles. Will you ever enjoy interviewing the way I do? Maybe, maybe not. But either way, you can be successful in the process through research, preparation, and practice. You've got this econ majors!

  • Research and practice. Find the interview style/format for your market and job function and prepare. You can find the info from recruiters, alumni, people in the jobs currently, employer websites, and websites like glassdoor.com. 
  • Prepare the answers to the essential interview questions before every interview. 
  • Be on time.
  • Look the part - dress professionally and if this is a virtual meeting - have good lighting and be sure the area in your camera's perimeter is neat and clean. 
  • If possible, research your interviewer before the interview. This will allow you to consider the perspective from which they are approaching the interview. For example, if they manage budgets, they may be looking at the employers' fiscal health. Asking budget-related questions would make sense, whereas questions about the firm's HR policies may not be as applicable.
  • Refer to your interviewers by their names in the interview. Using someone's name is memorable.
  • Craft your story and share it genuinely. Think about what led you to apply for the job and weave your narrative to arrive at that point.
  • You are interviewing the employer also. Assure the employer is a good fit for you by asking questions that allow you to determine if the employer fits your needs (your values, work style, compensation, career mobility, cultural fit etc.).
  • Relax and keep things in perspective.
    • You will receive job offers and you will get hired.
    • The interviewer wants you to do well. They want to hire you!


The Muse Interviews
Are you like, saying something without, like knowing, that it's like hurting your career? (I'm not a fan of the photo, but the topic is relevant for students of any gender.)
How to Master Effective Storytelling in Interviews


Behavioral Interview Question Bank from the ECO 
Interview Prep from the UVA Career Center
Consulting Case Interview Prep Materials in Collab
Sample Financial Analyst Interview Questions
Deloitte Federal Case Interview Practice Tips
ECO Prep Sign up Sheet for Case Interviews - Fall 2021



Feature | 11/01/2018


Cailin Slattery presented her job market paper "Bidding for Firms: Subsidy Competition in the U.S." at the Urban Economics Association Meeting at Columbia University in New York City. She received valuable feedback on her paper and discussed her research with Urban Economists from all over the world. She also had the opportunity to attend talks by Ed Glaeser, Raj Chetty, and recent Nobel Laureate Paul Romer.

In her job market paper, Cailin studies how U.S. states use discretionary tax breaks and subsidies to compete for individual firms to locate and create jobs in their jurisdictions. This policy has been well publicized with the recent competition for Amazon's second headquarters, but it is not an Amazon-specific phenomenon --- states spend billions of dollars each year on discretionary subsidies to attract a handful of large firms. However, it is still debated whether subsidy competition is a zero-sum game which only serves to transfer rent from states to firms at no national welfare gain, or if subsidies actually cause firms to locate where they create more value for a state. 

In order to address this debate empirically, Cailin hand-collected a new data set on state level incentive spending and firm-level subsidy deals. She then uses the data to estimate a model of subsidy competition, where states bid for individual firms in an oral ascending auction. This allows her to answer two open questions about subsidy competition: how do states value a given firm, and how important are subsidies to a firms' location decision?  Her estimates provide the first empirical evidence that states use subsidies to help large firms internalize the positive externalities they have in a state. Specifically, she find that states value not only the direct jobs the firm promises to create when determining their subsidy offer, but also the indirect jobs they are expected to create through agglomeration.

Next, she uses the model to estimate the effects of a counterfactual subsidy ban, and evaluate the welfare implications of subsidy competition.  Her counterfactual results confirm that subsidy competition is not a zero-sum game. In fact, competition increases total welfare (the joint payoffs of states and firms) by 20% over the subsidy ban. However, the entirety of this welfare gain is captured by the firms. Although individual states are better off, the aggregate welfare of states decreases relative to the subsidy ban. In short, the states, as a whole, are worse off with competition, because they have competed away much of the value a firm creates in their location.

Feature | 07/27/2023

Two New Assistant Professors to start this Fall 2023

Emma Harrington is a labor economist. Her research focuses on remote work and systemic discrimination in the criminal justice system.  In her research, she has investigated remote work's consequences on workers' productivity, on-the-job training, and career progression in the context of a Fortune 500 retailer. In addition to remote-work topics, her current projects evaluate the extent to which prosecutors in criminal courts either check or pass through racial biases introduced by police.

Harrington is an affiliate of JPAL North America. Her research has been funded by the Lab for Economic Applications and Policy and the Bradley Foundation. Her research on prosecutors won the Donald M. Ephraim Prize in Law & Economics at the University of Chicago. Her research on remote work has been featured in The New York Times, The Economist, National Public Radio, Bloomberg, Vox, and other media outlets.  She has co-organized the Remote Work Conference at Stanford and a session at the American Economic Association meetings.

She received her Economics Ph.D. from Harvard University in 2021. She did a  postdoctoral fellowship in Princeton’s Industrial Relations Section in 2021-2022 and was previously an Assistant Professor of Economics at the University of Iowa.

This fall, she will be teaching Graduate Labor Economics (Econ 8150).

Vladimir Smirnyagin is a macroeconomist whose research interests lie at the quantitative nexus of macroeconomics and finance. In his work, he combines large, comprehensive datasets with quantitative models to answer important questions in macro-finance. Vladimir's current research focuses on the macroeconomic analysis of supply chain disruptions and environmental regulations. Prior to joining the University of Virginia, he was a postdoctoral associate at Yale University.

He holds a B.A. in Economics from the Higher School of Economics, an M.A. from the New Economic School, and a Ph.D. from the University of Minnesota. During his doctoral studies, he worked as a research analyst at the Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis. He also spent several months at the Bank of England as an academic visitor. His work has been supported by the Heller-Hurwicz Economics Institute and by the Tobin Center for Economic Policy at Yale.

This fall, he will be teaching Graduate Macroeconomics (Econ 7020).



Elzinga Flash Seminar

Feature | 09/05/2016


Awesome events and job postings for econ majors! This week's prep programs for Career Fairs!

Elzinga Flash Seminar

Feature | 06/07/2018

How to Answer "Why Do You Want to Work for Us?"

One of the more common interview questions these days, especially for entry-level positions, is some form of "Why do you want to work for us?" Other forms of this question include "What attracts you to our firm?" and "What about our firm excites you?" Whatever the exact phrasing you receive, there are a few things you want to get across as clearly and concisely as possible when answering.

Elzinga Flash Seminar

Feature | 08/19/2022

Seven Tips for Preparing for the New Semester

Taken from PwC on August 19th, 2022.

After “no rules” vacations it’s always hard to get back to school, schedules and assignments. We have put together seven tips we think can help you to get back on track.

1. Clean everything

Let’s start with the basics, shall we? Clean your computer desktop and downloads folder, delete all those temporary PDF’s, organise everything in folders and be ready for the new semester with everything in place. Think about changing your screen image, with something calm, maybe related to the season … nature is always a good idea!

Now let’s move to your backpack and your desk. Put everything in place, throw away anything that isn’t useful anymore. After this, you’re almost ready to start.

2. Set a schedule

After holidays or exam time, we know it’s hard to get back into the routine. Setting up a schedule will help you get back to it: write down your study time and sleeping hours, and don’t forget to leave some free slots, or fill them with “me” time … everyone needs it.

3. Create your own “reimagine the possible” list

Here you’ll write down not only your new year’s resolution but also small things and topics/ideas you feel you need to work on over time.

You can put down getting back to the gym or finally taking that dry-cleaning to the laundry, as well as what you wish to achieve in one year, for example. This won’t be just one more bucket list, it will include what you want to work on as a person.

4. Back to a good sleep schedule

There’s nothing better than those days without classes or exams coming, where you can watch Netflix or play Minecraft all night long. We know this sounds like heaven, but with the new semester starting, you should start thinking about getting ready for an early alarm.

Use technology in your favour, set a bedtime on your phone and all your notifications will be silent, and this will be one distraction less. Start setting an earlier alarm each morning, so when the class time comes again, you will be ready!

5. Order your books (if they are digital, download them)

Do you know what’s better than realising the semester is starting? It’s being prepared for it! So, let’s have a look at the books you need for the classes, if they are digital, download them and create folders for the signatures.

If you have no information about the material you need for one of the classes, what about talking to that friend of yours who has done the class already?

6. Put together some playlists / podcasts

If you have to travel to get to your school, the right playlist, or an interesting podcast can make commuting much easier. If you have some extra time now, spend some of it putting together playlists full of summer hits and old favourites that will cheer you up, or with relaxing sounds to help you concentrate or relax..

Don’t forget to check some podcasts on topics that interest you, the latest news or just comedy. Laughing is always good exercise, isn’t it?

7. Put yourself first

University tasks, part-time job/internship, parties … it can be overwhelming sometimes, and exhausting. Don’t forget to always put yourself first, stop when you need to, close the book or the computer for a break – even if that means you’ll be away for a whole weekend. Practice meditation, boxing, mindfulness, jogging or any other activity that allows you to think about absolutely NOTHING! This will help you concentrate on what’s important, and you’ll be much more productive.

Do you feel ready to start your semester after our tips? You don’t need to adopt all the tips, we know that what works for some students might not work for others. What’s important, in the end, is that you find your way, and if you have other tips and tricks feel free to let us know.

Elzinga Flash Seminar

Feature | 08/07/2017


"Every year, Vault surveys thousands of investment banking professionals, asking them to tell us about life at their firms. We ask about culture, compensation, hours, training, and many more areas, including the hiring process. With respect to the hiring process, we ask professionals which traits an ideal job candidate needs to have to get hired. In the past, and again this year, banking professionals told us that the following traits are highly important (and, in some cases, required): a strong work ethic, team-playing ability, strong communication skills, strong technical skills, superior intellect, excellent problem-solving skills, and the ability to adapt to different situations." -Derek Loosvelt 

Click here to read the rest of the article. 

Elzinga Flash Seminar

Feature | 08/28/2019

How to Solve Business Problems Using Creativity

By: Lynda Shaw
Source: Forbes



What comes into your mind when you think of creativity? An artist painting beautiful works of art? A designer with imagination and skills for contemporary architecture? An original thinker of the type lauded as a genius? Of course, creativity is all of these, but creative people also think of valuable and practical ways of doing things. They solve problems on a regular basis by employing creative thought.  That is the kind of creativity that is exceedingly helpful in business and an incredible transferable skill for anyone who can master it.

Social psychologist and cofounder of the London School of Economics, Graham Wallas developed a theory of a creative process that I think you may find useful. With observations some years earlier from Poincaré, a French mathematician, Wallas came up with a logical and practical template to harness the seemingly illogical unconscious thinking that can nevertheless be so illuminating and turn into the perfect solution to problems.

There are four steps to this model:

Step 1 – Preparation: Recognize the problem and find out as much about it as you can.  Consciously try to come up with an answer.

Step 2 – Incubation: Do something unrelated to the problem, think of something else and allow your mind to unconsciously work on the problem.

Step 3 – Illumination: It is during the incubation period that an unrelated event could give an answer, a sort of realization, an illumination.

Step 4 – Verification: At this point you check the solution you have come up with to see if it will work.

The "incubation" period is the interesting part and this has stimulated much debate over the years. It could be that the information you consider in the preparation phase has itself already undergone some unconscious processing. Some believe that unconscious thinking is faster than conscious thought, so is therefore more efficient in the incubation phase. Psychologists more recently suggest that unconscious processing is more effective than conscious processing because it has no constraints associated with normal concepts, so frees the mind to come up with novel answers.

As is often the case in psychology, there are researchers (such as Weisberg) who disagree and the incubation period model is under contention. Many believe that problem solving isn’t in the least bit mysterious and is a combination of relevant knowledge, factual information and problem solving strategies. In this context, these strategies can include analogical problem solving whereby we use our experiences of similar situations and apply this previously acquired knowledge to find solutions. Be careful however, as there will be different variables to consider, so stay open minded.

But here’s a thought. A recent study by Saggar and colleagues found a link between creative problem solving and activity in the cerebellum part of the brain, which is normally associated with regulating motor movements such as balance, co-ordination and speech. They found that when people engaged the executive-control center, engaging higher order functions such as planning and organizing, it actually impaired creative problem solving. In this instance, thinking logically didn’t help with the task.

So what strategies for creative problem solving do you favor? Are you in the logical camp or do you prefer the four-step model? Perhaps you have other ways in which you work out those sticky challenges.  Whichever you prefer, perhaps it’s a good idea to shake up old ways of doing things and consciously try something different and measure its success or otherwise. At least that way you will know what best suits you.

Feature | 07/19/2019

Sarah Turner and PhD Candidate Emily Cook Publish Article on Effects of Universal College Testing

The study was referenced on June 25th in The Washington Post, Education Week, and The Atlanta Journal-Constitution; the abstract can be accessed using the following link: https://www.aera.net/Newsroom/Missed-Exams-and-Lost-Opportunities-Who-Could-Gain-from-Expanded-College-Admission-Testing

Elzinga Flash Seminar

Feature | 09/16/2021

ECO Article: Career Advice for College Students: 5 Tips to Build a Strong Foundation

by Lucy Manole | September 08, 2021 from Vault

College years are all about that hustle and bustle. From attending classes and parties to tackling exams and social life, there’s little spare time on your hands.

Even so, college years are crucial for career building. It’s the right time to not just think about your career aspirations but also to take action. In this post, we share some actionable advice and experience-backed tips to build a solid base for your career. Let’s dive in.

Find your true passion.

What you’re studying in college may interest you, but is it your true passion? Say, you’re majoring in computer science—do you see yourself building a lifelong career in that field?

Don’t disregard the cliché quote, “If you do what you love, you'll never work a day in your life” just because you’re tired of hearing it. Picking a career path is a long-term decision, and college years are the perfect time to ponder what profession floats your boat. Whatever you pick as your career, aim to be better than the best in your field. And that’s only possible if you’re truly passionate about what you do, as doing what you love means you’re motivated to give your best each day.

So, strive to find your true passion. Think about the subjects you love in your major and excel at. Think about luminaries you admire. Many college graduates ultimately end up doing something completely different from what they studied, and that’s okay. It’s all about finding and doing what you love, and the money will eventually follow.

Proactively seek opportunities.

College is a time for fun, but also a time to gain some valuable, hands-on experience in your field. One of the most important and effective ways to do that is by getting internships.

Internships allow you to try out different fields you’re interested in. You get to learn new skills and gain real-world exposure without the pressure and commitment that comes with a full-time job. You might even get paid! Professional experience—even if it’s unrelated to the career you ultimately land in—will better prepare you for the real world and narrow down what you love. Besides, getting a foot in the door while you’re still in college will make the eventual job hunt a bit less stressful.

Volunteering is another great way to gain valuable experience and show future employers that you’re serious about the things that matter to you. And to find internship and volunteering opportunities, you need to...

Build your network.

To a large extent, it’s true that “your network is your net worth” (this is the title of a book by Porter Gale). Your college days are ideal to start sowing the seeds of professional relationships that:

  • In the short term, help you land internships and freelance work.
  • In the long run, help you land job offers and business opportunities.

There are plenty of ways to start building your professional network:

  • Start with your professors, peers, and family. Ask them to let you know if they come across any opportunities in your areas of interest.
  • Get (and keep) in touch with your college alumni to learn about internship opportunities at their companies.
  • Use social media platforms, particularly Twitter and LinkedIn, to post your college learning experiences, connect with professionals in your field, join networking groups, and look for opportunities.
  • Attend career fairs and similar events to get in front of potential employers.

Learn financial prudence.

You may not be earning just yet, but the earlier you learn the basics of building wealth, the better.

Whether or not you have a source of income, the first step to financial prudence is making a habit to spend wisely. Of course, the occasional indulgence is fine, but avoid impulse shopping or spending on things you don’t really need. After all, money saved is money earned, and that money can help you better manage your monthly college expenses and debt.

Oh, and if you have spare funds, learn how you can start investing. You can also consider P2P lending or, if you’re feeling a bit adventurous, crypto trading.

Start a creative side hustle.

While tackling college academic work is often a tall order in itself, carving out time for a creative side hustle is almost always possible and potentially very rewarding.

So if you have an entrepreneurial drive to start something of your own—be it a blog, a simple online store, a YouTube channel, etc.—do it. Don’t put it off and binge-watch Netflix instead. Starting your side venture during college gives you an amazing head start, and who knows what good things it might lead you to.

Freelancing in your free time isn’t a bad idea either. Love web design, coding, or writing and are good at it? Why not leverage and hone your skills by taking on real-world projects, while getting paid for your work? Not to mention freelancing will also help in your network- and resume-building efforts, and (at least to some extent) finance your college expenses.

Wrapping up

Like it or not, college time flies fast. Before you know it, you’re reminiscing about your college days—wanting to relive fond memories but being grateful for not having the stress of exams and assignment deadlines—while worrying about some project’s deadline at work.

Make the most of this time. In the long run, your college grades may not matter much, but how you spend your college years matters a lot.


Feature | 02/26/2023

Economics Undergraduate Career Forum 2023 (Students)


Scroll to the bottom for alumni LinkedIn profile links and complete biographies.

The University of Virginia Department of Economics


The 2023 Economics Undergraduate Career Forum
Economics at Work

March 30-31, 2023

Charlottesville, Virginia

Program Description and Format:

The Economics Undergraduate Career Forum brings together professionals who hold undergraduate economics degrees with current students and faculty through networking events and educational programming to expose majors and prospective majors to potential professional experiences. The program combines informal networking opportunities with more structured career panels, talks, and office hours. Our hope is that these programs will provide valuable career-related information for students while facilitating and strengthening relationships between all participants.

By the end of the program, we hope that students will have an understanding of the industries, workplaces, and job functions of the panelists and some familiarity with internships, entry-level jobs and career paths. Students will learn how to prepare to be strong intern/entry-level candidates in the participants’ fields, which may include guidance about classes and extracurriculars, building industry-focused professional materials, upskilling resources, and relevant networking and interviewing. We hope that students and alumni will have fun and will emerge with new connections and ideas for next steps.


March 30       

  • 5:00-6:00 pm Industry Talk: South Meeting Room, Newcomb Hall (Open to Students, Faculty, Guests)
  • 6:30-8:00 pm Dinner (Guests, Invited Faculty, Selected Students) The Ridley, West Main Street, Charlottesville  (applications for students will be available March 1)

March 31       

  • 8:30-9:15 am Breakfast, Monroe 120 (Faculty and Alumni Guests)
  • 9:30-10:45 am Panel 1, Newcomb Hall, Commonwealth Room; Office Hours/Coffee Chats, Monroe 113, 235, and 236
  • 11:00-12:00 pm Panel 2, Newcomb Hall, Commonwealth Room; Office Hours/Coffee Chats, Monroe 113, 235, and 236
  • 12:30-1:45 pm Networking Lunch, Newcomb Hall South Meeting Room (Guests and Students)
  • 2:00-2:30 pm Gift Ceremony before Departure, Newcomb Hall South Meeting Room (Guests, Steering Committee)

Program Descriptions Follow in Order. Please use the Event Schedule you will receive on 3/20/22 for Your Assignments:

Industry Talk:  
Forging Horcruxes in the Rotunda: Using the Power of Economic Analysis at Work
Register here: https://app.joinhandshake.com/edu/events/1205068
Before the dinner at The Ridley, there will be an industry talk given on Grounds. Students, faculty, and alumni are invited to attend.
Speaker: Dr. Gian Domenico Sarolli, Senior Economist, Bank of America

Networking Dinner with Faculty, Alumni, and Students (By Application Only) 
Apply here: https://virginia.az1.qualtrics.com/jfe/form/SV_0IE1QynIZkO6CRo

Career Panel 1
Register here: https://app.joinhandshake.com/edu/events/1205072
Jennifer Floyd, Harris Williams
Gian Domenic Sorolli, Bank of America
Stella Yang, Echo Street Capital
Lindsey Walsh, Save 1 Challenge (formerly Gartner)

Career Panel 2
Register here: https://app.joinhandshake.com/edu/events/1205073

Sarah Bufano, Guidehouse
Jenny Rae Le Roux, Management Consulted
Suhail Thahir, FTI Consulting
Amir Rasool, Hanover Research
Meagan Walters, Centers for Disease Control

Office Hours/Coffee Chats
Register here: https://docs.google.com/spreadsheets/d/16ObhgDqEV6bC4mJXsCs1PT5mKA148pjU...

Office hours provide an opportunity for students to seek feedback about their career plans or contemplations and to ask questions about a guest’s background one-on-one. 
A virtual or in-person prep session may be required for office hours.

Office Hours/Coffee Chats Session 1
Register here: https://app.joinhandshake.com/edu/events/1205070

Sarah Bufano, Guidehouse
Jenny Rae Le Roux, Management Consulted
Suhail Thahir, FTI Consulting
Amir Rasool, Hanover Research
Meagan Walters, Centers for Disease Control

Office Hours/Coffee Chats Session 2
Register here: https://app.joinhandshake.com/edu/events/1205071

Jennifer Floyd, Harris Williams
Gian Domenic Sorolli, Bank of America
Stella Yang, Echo Street Capital
Lindsey Walsh, Save 1 Challenge (formerly Gartner)

Networking Lunch - All Alumni Guests
Industries Represented: Management Consulting, Economic Consulting, Investment Banking, PE, Health Economics, Government and Policy, AI, Non-profit, Entrepreneurship
Register here: https://app.joinhandshake.com/edu/events/1259898

Lunch provided by Take It Away
Tables will be arranged around the room and each alum will be stationed at a table as a “host.” Students will grab lunch and find their way to a table for the first 5 minutes.  Each alumnus will have 1-2 minutes to introduce him or herself to the room. Students will be provided with tips sheets to prepare for networking.

Part 2: Organized Rotations (2 at 10 minutes each for 20 minutes total)

Students will rotate between two different alumni tables. They should introduce themselves with their names, major, year, and a fun fact.

Part 3: Informal Networking (20 minutes)

Students will move about the room and visit alumni tables.

Alumni will share any information they have about internship and entry-level recruiting for students with their organization/relevant past organizations. This may include information about diversity/affinity group hiring.   

Alumni and Guests' LInkedIn Profiles: 

Sarah Bufano- Sr. National Security Consultant at Guidehouse 

Jennifer Floyd- Analyst at Harris Williams 

Jenny Rae Le Roux- CEO at Management Consulted 

Amir Rasool- Managing Director at Hanover Research  

Gian Domenico Sarolli- Senior Economist at Bank of America 

Troy Sweeney- Associate at NetCapital  (canceled as of 3/26)

Suhail Thahir- Consultant at FTI Consulting 

Lindsey Walsh- Business Co-Owner & Save 1 Challenge Founder, formerly Managing VP at Gartner 

Meagan Walters- Health Policy Analyst at the CDC 

Stella Yang- Senior Quantitative Analyst, Echo Street Capital

Alumni and Guests' Biographies


Elzinga Flash Seminar

Feature | 11/18/2021


Taken from the National Association of Colleges and Employers 

NACE Journal, August 2020

There are only faint predictions as to what the post COVID-19 job market is going to be like. The economy has some of the highest unemployment rates since the Great Depression coupled with huge decreases in GDP. It is a sure bet that workplaces will be more distributed and virtual, at least for the foreseeable future. College campuses will likely be predominantly virtual as well, closed to in-person classes, with nearly all coursework online, and an increased number of both high school graduates and college students taking a gap-year to figure out their educational plans. Career centers, often already feeling understaffed, will likely be faced with resource cutbacks at a time when seniors especially (but the majority of students) will be even more desperate to find jobs. Traditional recruiting strategies with employers, such as on-campus career fairs and information sessions, will be essentially nonexistent.

The results from our survey conducted early this year—January through February 2020, prior to the coronavirus pandemic in the United States—offer some possible pivot points, some of which have probably already been implemented by foresighted career center professionals. For the record, here are some highlights of what we found in our nationwide online survey of 541 college seniors and recent graduates. (Note: Fifty-nine percent of respondents were men, and 22 percent were first-generation college students. Thirteen percent were attending or had attended a community college.) In this study, we focused on how students actually obtained internships. Our findings have clear implications for career center professionals moving forward.


Internships make college students more competitive in the job market because they give students a chance to gain knowledge, skills, and experience valued by potential employers. From a career development perspective, even more importantly, they provide an opportunity for students to see if the particular career field is the right one for them. Getting their feet wet, so to speak, affords them perspective about whether they could see themselves working full time (or even the rest of their lives) in this field. Even in the worst case, when students realize this is not the work they would want to do, they can still come away from the internships with their eyes opened to issues of organizational culture, politics, and leadership, and with lessons learned about the ropes to know and the hoops to jump through. Mentors may often be found during internships, providing invaluable advice in the job-search process, both internal to the internship employer and external. Finally, there are the real financial benefits associated with internships beyond summer employment. NACE surveys show that students who had internships were 20 percent more likely to receive full-time job offers than those without an internship. Having an internship also resulted in receiving significantly higher starting salaries.1

These facts are evident in these common refrains from corporate recruiters: “As a recruiter, I value students who have gotten great internship experiences over those [who] have not.” “A student who has an internship upon graduation will be more highly desired by employers than someone who did not venture into the ‘work world’ at all during college.” “Internships are imperative.”2

Nearly all of the employers responding to NACE’s 2019 Recruiting Benchmark Survey Report indicated that internships provide them with an important opportunity to identify talent early.3


Cold networking involves contacting someone without having any established or preexisting relationship versus warm networking, which involves making use of one’s network, e.g., family, friends, neighbors, teachers, and so forth, to make a connection between the applicant and the potential employer. While traditional wisdom has asserted that “who you know matters” and would seem to favor warm networking, our survey found just the opposite.

Somewhat initially surprising was the finding that students who engaged in cold networking were twice as likely to earn an internship as students who only engaged in warm networking. Moreover, those who found their internship through warm networking were less likely to report that the internship turned into a job offer. For those who reported that their internship resulted in a job offer, 70 percent found the internship through cold networking, while only 40 percent found the internship through warm networking. This finding suggests a possible intangible benefit of cold networking is that the internship may be perceived as earned on one’s merits rather than on riding the coattails of some personal relationship.

These trends continued to be evident for first-generation college students. First-generation student who engaged in cold networking were 38 percent more likely to earn an internship than first-generation students who did not similarly reach out. Moreover, first-generation students who did cold networking were four times more likely to have their internships turn into jobs than first-generation students who did not report doing cold networking.

Most students struggle with doubts about the significance of their accomplishments and have some sense of being exposed as a “fraud” or “imposter” related to reaching out and networking with business professionals.4 For first-generation students, imposter syndrome and insecurities are even more prevalent.5 Most students think to themselves, “No professional will want to meet with me” or “I might do something wrong and jeopardize future opportunities—it’s not worth it,” or “I’m not a good enough student to be worthy of a professional’s time,” and the like.

Networking makes a difference. In our study, more than nine out of 10 students who had an internship during college engaged in networking with business professionals via informational interviews. Students with two or more internships were eight times more likely to have conducted an informational interview. As Supreme Court Justice Sonia Sotomayor reflected on her own career: “Sometimes people are put off by the whole business of networking as something tainted by flattery and the pursuit of selfish advantage. But virtue in obscurity is awarded only in heaven. To succeed in the world, you have to be known by people.”6

An additional benefit from networking, as students reported in our survey, is that it increased their self-confidence. In support of the notion that “practice makes perfect,” we found that the more informational interviews students reported conducting, the higher the levels of confidence they reported in themselves, as reflected not only in obtaining an internship, but in their feelings of career readiness and skillfulness in networking. Low confidence levels in their networking skills were reported by 42 percent of those students who did not have an internship during college.


A constricted job market due to COVID-19 issues has many profound implications for students as well as college career professionals and corporate recruiters. While our survey was conducted before “the world/economy turned upside down,” the lessons are still applicable to helping students earn internships and jobs upon graduation/completion. Their chances increase when they can a) conduct informational interviews and b) use cold networking avenues. The imperative lesson is that, if students want to obtain internships and jobs, they need to conduct informational interviews, and the key to obtaining them is achieved through cold networking.

Career professionals need to engage with students to help them understand that “who you know” does not matter so much until “you know someone”! Moreover, the payoff from an internship appears to be greater (in terms of leading to a job offer) if it is obtained through cold networking rather than warm networking. This entails shifting from working with students to develop relationships with employers per se to teaching students how to network and conduct informational interviews, in the same sense as the proverb: “Give people a fish and you feed them for a day, but teach people how to fish and you feed them for a lifetime.”

Historically, four out of five jobs are not advertised7 and this hidden job market is likely to be even greater these days. Career professionals can make a concerted effort to teach students how to access those opportunities through cold networking. Doing so will improve the chances of students of not only gaining internships, but of securing full-time employment.

We can help students improve their confidence and ability to cold network by teaching strategies on how to most effectively conduct informational interviews. For example, in our study, we found that students who conducted informational interviews were considerably more likely to land an internship than those who relied on online job boards, career fairs, or information sessions. The massive switch to online classes has boosted students’ experience with digital connecting at the same time that employers have pivoted to virtual workplaces; this means that both parties should be increasingly confident in this medium for informational interviews.

Teaching students how to network creates a virtuous cycle. Each connection increases the likelihood of securing an internship (and finding employment). Most career centers were never meant to be in the job placement business and, during these very turbulent times both on and off campus, we must empower students to be proactive and even more accountable for their careers. The students generally have the will, and we need to make certain we are providing them with the skills and techniques to find their way.


1 National Association of Colleges and Employers (March 2016). “Paid interns/co-ops see greater offer rates and salary offers than their unpaid classmates.” www.naceweb.org/job-market/internships/paid-interns-co-ops-see-greater-offer-rates-and-salary-offers-than-their-unpaid-classmates/

2 Ibid.

3 National Association of Colleges and Employers (December 2019). 2019 Recruiting Benchmarks Survey Report.

4 Kolligan, J., & Sternberg, R. J. (1991). “Perceived fraudulence in young adults: Is there an ‘imposter syndrome’? Journal of Personality Assessment, 55(1), 308-326.

5 Canning, E. A., LaCrosse, J., & Kroeper, K. M. (2019). “Feeling like an imposter: The effect of perceived classroom competition on the daily psychological experiences of first-generation college students.” Social Psychological and Personality Science, 11(5), 647-657.

6 Sotomayor, S. (2014). My beloved world. New York: Vintage Books.

7 Burnett, B., & Evans, D. (2018). Designing your life: How to build a well-lived, joyful life. New York: Borzoi Book.

Sean O'Keefe

Sean O’Keefe is an award-winning professor at Santa Clara University where he teaches in the Leavey School of Business and in campuswide programming for first-generation students. In 2018, he launched a social enterprise (www.launchyourcareer.academy) that helps colleges scale the skillset of launching a job or internship search with encouragement and financial support from his university. His book Launch Your Career will be published spring 2021. He can be reached at sokeefe@scu.edu.

Barry Z. Posner

Barry Z. Posner holds the Michael J. Accolti, S.J. Chair in Leadership at Santa Clara University (SCU), where he is professor of leadership in the Leavey School of Business. While at SCU, he has received numerous teaching awards and has served as associate dean for graduate education, associate dean for executive education, and dean. He is the co-author of The Leadership Challenge and more than 100 academic and practitioner-oriented publications. He can be reached at bposner@scu.edu.

Elzinga Flash Seminar

Feature | 12/22/2016


"Hiring managers rarely have the time or resources to look at each résumé closely, and they typically spend about six seconds on their initial fit/no fit decision. If you want to pass that test, you need to have some solid qualifications — and the perfect resume to highlight them."-Tayyiba Iram

Click here to read the rest of the article

Feature | 05/15/2023


Elzinga Flash Seminar

Feature | 03/28/2022

ECO Article: How to Close the Networking Gap from The Wall Street Journal

How to Close the Networking Gap
The Wall Street Journal
March 17, 2022
By Ben Wildavsky

Ben Wildavsky is a visiting scholar at UVA's School of Education.

When Mark Granovetter was a Ph.D. student in the late 1960s, studying how white-collar men find new jobs, he zeroed in on social networks. When he asked interview subjects whether the person who told them about their current job was a friend, he repeatedly ran into the same answer. “Over and over again, they would correct me and say ‘No, no, he’s only an acquaintance,’” says Dr. Granovetter, now a professor of sociology at Stanford.
The idea, he explained in his classic 1973 article “The Strength of Weak Ties,” is that a job seeker’s close friends usually know the same people and can only share already familiar information. From acquaintances, by contrast, “you’re going to get new information, new ideas, new ways of thinking,” he says.

Nearly 50 years later, with a healthy assist from the force-multiplier of digital technology, personal and professional networking shows every sign of thriving. But that’s not true across the board. Low-income Americans, racial minorities and first-generation college students frequently struggle. Even when they have checked all the career-readiness boxes by earning college degrees or other credentials, these job seekers typically navigate their careers with the fewest networking advantages.

As a result, according to a 2021 study of Florida State University graduates in the Journal of Applied Psychology, first-generation students have a harder time getting high-quality jobs than better-connected classmates with the same credentials. Having more “occupationally focused relationships” and help with resume-writing and interview skills provides a big boost compared with “job seekers of lower social class who lack such networks,” the authors wrote.

The strikingly insular nature of massively popular platforms like Facebook and LinkedIn doesn’t help. Those social networks “tend to simply amplify users’ offline networks and tendencies, rather than forging new, different or expanded networks,” wrote Julia Freeland Fisher, director of education at the Clayton Christensen Institute, in her 2018 book “Who You Know: Unlocking Innovations That Expand Students’ Networks.”

Several years ago, Meg Garlinghouse, LinkedIn’s vice president for social impact, began to notice that the people contacting her on LinkedIn seeking informational interviews were all advantaged white women with four-year college degrees. “They were kind of in my network,” she recalls. “I was like, ‘Oh, my God, I’m unintentionally helping the people who look just like me.’”LinkedIn’s own research shows that a member raised in a well-off ZIP Code is three times as likely to have a robust network, with many connections from a range of places. Members who graduated from well-known colleges and had a first job at a top company are twice as likely to have strong networks.
In a recent analysis of survey responses from 55,000 U.S. college students at 91 institutions, the National Survey of Student Engagement and Strada Education Network found that first-generation students were significantly less likely than their peers to have networked with alumni or professionals, discussed career interests with faculty, or interviewed someone in a career field that interests them.

Entrepreneurs have noticed the problem. In 2014, three undergraduates at Michigan Technology University, frustrated with how few recruiters from companies outside the Midwest came to their campus, took matters into their own hands. Determined to democratize access to information and opportunity, they launched Handshake, a platform for professional networking and graduate recruitment. Today the company serves 20 million students and young alumni from 1,400 educational institutions. It works with 650,000 companies, including all of the Fortune 500, providing services such as video interviews and online career fairs.

Along the way, the company has significantly expanded career networks for low-income students. Six years ago, about 20% of undergraduates using Handshake were recipients of Pell grants, well below the one-third or so of students nationally awarded the need-based federal financial assistance. Today the figure has grown to 32%, thanks to the company’s new partnerships with hundreds of community colleges and historically Black colleges. “For someone who doesn’t have a lot of connections,” says Handshake’s chief education strategy officer, Christine Cruzvergara, “This is a non-intimidating place where the barrier is lower for them to initiate a conversation.”
The next step is getting students from disadvantaged backgrounds launched into strong first jobs. That’s the mission of Chicago-based Braven, which works with a number of university partners across the country. Students in the program are coached in, among other things, forming networks and using referrals and informational interviews to secure internships and career-focused jobs.

As a student at Rutgers University-Newark, Andrej Gjorgiev signed up for Braven, a program that helps launch students into strong first jobs.

Andrej Gjorgiev, 24, signed up for Braven as a criminal justice and psychology major at Rutgers University-Newark. He learned how to seek the kind of connections he would have had trouble making on his own as the child of a construction worker and night-shift lab technician who emigrated from Macedonia a decade ago. “A lot of the time, if you don’t know people, it’s hard to get outside of just your family,” he said.

Yet for too many low-income college students, graduation still means underemployment. Farzana Chowdhury, whose parents run a newsstand in Brooklyn, emigrated to the U.S. from Bangladesh when she was 17. She graduated from Brooklyn College and considers her education well worth the time and money. But, she says. “Nobody preps you for interview skills. Nobody preps you for ‘Hey, after you graduate, start applying for internships, start looking into jobs, start going into LinkedIn.’”

She got that help as a participant in the social-capital-and-skills nonprofit COOP Careers, which works with recent graduates who may be employed in one or more part-time jobs but are seeking more lucrative employment with a promising career ladder. “Skills don’t necessarily protect you. Relationships are what protect you,” says Markus Ward, COOP’s managing director of development. The organization collaborates with a number of large public universities and with major employers such as Google and Microsoft.

As for networking giant LinkedIn, when it came to recognize that networks aren’t distributed equally, it began to take steps to close the gap. Ms. Garlinghouse helped to introduce the “Plus One Pledge,” which encourages LinkedIn members to do informational interviews with people outside their existing professional network, to be mentors and to introduce job seekers to friends or colleagues.

Even as these new tools develop and gain popularity, breaking into new networks remains challenging, especially for low-income students with modest inherited networks. For them to build successful careers, education and skills are necessary but not sufficient. They need social capital, too.

—Mr. Wildavsky, a visiting scholar at the University of Virginia School of Education and Human Development, is writing a book for Princeton University Press on education, social capital and career success.

Elzinga Flash Seminar

Feature | 08/16/2021

ECO Article: Resumes and Best Practices

How to Write a College Resume That’ll Get You Hired (Plus an Example!)

by Meredith Pepin at The Muse

person sitting at desk in college dorm room with laptop

James Woodson/Getty Images

When you’re in college, a strong resume is one of the first things that helps you land an internship or part-time job. It represents you to employers when you can’t be in the room (yet!) and is essential to convincing them to call you for an interview based on your previous experiences and current skills. Whether you have a resume you used for college applications or are starting completely from scratch, putting effort into your resume now gives you a higher likelihood of success and sets a solid foundation, making it a breeze to update in the future as you—and it—evolve.

If you feel like you have nothing to put on your resume, don’t worry. After advising hundreds of students on these documents, I know you have more to offer than you think! I frequently meet first-year college students who believe they can’t include many of the things they did before college on a resume. You absolutely can—and you should—until those get outranked by all the other awesome things you’ll accumulate over the course of your college career. Even if you’re a freshly minted high school graduate, you have valuable skills and experiences employers want, and this guide can help you showcase them.

Read on to learn about what goes on your resume, how to format it, and what else you can do to ensure it makes you shine—and to see our college resume example.



What Goes on a College Resume

In setting up your resume, you should use a few core sections to help you easily lay out all the information a recruiter is looking for when they make quick decisions about whether or not to interview you. (And yes, recruiters do skim, reportedly spending an average of 7.4 seconds making their first pass on a resume, so you want to make a good impression fast).

Contact Info

It’s traditional to start with your basic contact information at the top of your document including your name, email, phone, and the city and state where you live. Use your full name (and maybe bump up the font a point or two because you’re a big deal!), and if you have a nickname you prefer, you can include it in parentheses.

Use your college email as it’s typically professional and establishes your educational brand. Now is also a good time to check that your phone’s voicemail greeting is up-to-date. In case a recruiter calls while you’re busy—or you don’t recognize the number and swipe it to voicemail—this greeting could be their first impression of you. Even recording something as simple as, “Hello, you’ve reached Christine. Please leave a message and I will return your call as soon as possible,” can help them feel confident they reached the right person and that you’re able to present yourself professionally.

Your physical location can be based either on your school’s address or your permanent home address. If you’re targeting opportunities in one location or the other, include the most local address so they know you’re familiar with the area (and likely won’t have a problem finding housing).

Pro tip: Save space by listing your email, phone, and location all on one line. If you have a LinkedIn profile, you can add that in your contact information section as well. The result might look like this:

Karla Perez
Stillwater, MN ∙ (000) 765-4321 ∙ karla.r.perez@university.eduwww.linkedin.com/krperez


For college students, education should be right below the contact information on your resume. This immediately orients your reader to the fact that you’re a current student and conveys important information, like what you’re studying. What you include in your education section can also demonstrate that you’re a good match for the opportunity you’re targeting, increasing your chances of a recruiter call.

The basics you should always include are:

  • Your school’s name
  • Your expected graduation date
  • The type of degree you’re pursuing: For example, you might write “Bachelor of Arts” or “Associate’s Degree.”
  • Any majors, minors, or concentrations: If you’re applying to opportunities in these areas, this will help an employer see you already have some knowledge and a motivation for working with them.

Depending on your personal strengths and what jobs you’re applying for, you might also want to include:

  • Your GPA: But only if it’s strong. (It’s usually good to include 3.5 and above.) If you stumbled through some of the general requirements you had to take but nailed all the courses in your major, consider adding two GPAs—your cumulative GPA and your major GPA—to show you have stronger grades in your chosen discipline.
  • Standardized test scores: If you’re applying to opportunities in quantitative fields, like finance or consulting, you might consider listing standardized test scores like the SAT or ACT.
  • Relevant coursework: Selecting and highlighting three to five classes that match closely with the specific opportunity you’re applying to is a really fast way to tailor your resume and make you a more attractive match. For example, if you’re targeting an internship in computer science, you can list your “Introduction to Python” and “Introduction to Algorithms” classes.
  • Other colleges or universities you’ve attended: If you’re a transfer student or you studied abroad at another university, adding these schools can signal that you have other strengths, such as cultural awareness or language skills, or give you a chance to highlight key classes you took elsewhere.
  • Your high school: If you’re shooting for an opportunity local to your high school or went somewhere well-known, then you may want to keep that as your last entry for educational experience. Otherwise, high school is the first entry to cut when you’re short on space. It has gotten you to where you need to be, but the focus should now be on the higher-level degree you’re working on and you should dedicate as much space as you need to boast about all of your amazing college accomplishments!

Here is an example of what a completed “Education” section might look like:


Candidate for Bachelor of Arts degree, St. Olaf College, Northfield, MN
Double Major: Political Science and Economics ∙ Expected Graduation: May 2023 ∙ GPA: 3.7
Relevant Coursework: Introduction to Political Theory, Politics and Human Rights, Global Interdependence


The experience section is where the real substance of your resume lives. This is the chance to show a snapshot of the jobs and internships you’ve had (if any), the work you did, the skills you used, and your accomplishments. Let’s talk about what experience you can include, how to pull out skills and demonstrate your value, and what it should look like on the page.

Experience can cover a lot of things. It can be full-time jobs, part-time jobs, internships, or research. Unpaid work—like volunteer and community roles—counts too! Don’t discount the value these other kinds of experiences can add to your resume just because you didn’t earn money. You can leverage all of your experiences on a resume by pulling out transferable skills, or broader talents you’ve developed that will be beneficial even if you aren’t applying to the same type of role.

Take a significant class project, for example. That can be built out as experience as long as you’re clear it was for a class. If you worked on a group project, you probably collaborated on a team, organized, worked under deadlines, completed some independent tasks, presented your work to others, and had some kind of outcome. Even if you were doing something that might not seem widely applicable, like designing a rocket, many of those skills can transfer over to another role. Say you had to do cost comparisons for the materials you selected for your rocket, those same analysis skills could be useful to a business role or for a part-time job where you have to order supplies for a restaurant.

You can also create targeted headers for your Experience section(s) if there are themes that correlate with the internship or part-time job you want. Specific headers—such as “Research Experience,” “Marketing Experience,” or “Software Engineering Experience”—can immediately help your reader see that you’re aligned with the needs they have for their open role.

If you don’t have something that specific, it’s OK. You can still shift your experiences into categories like “Relevant Experience” and “Additional Experience.” For example, if you’re applying to research roles, you’d want to put any research related work under “Relevant Experience,” and your cashier job and website building side hustle would go under “Additional Experience.” These two headers are great for allowing you to bump the best of your experiences up toward the top of your resume.

Once you decide which headers to use, make sure each entry includes basic information—the title of your role, the organization’s name, the location, and the dates you worked there—along with bullet points describing what you accomplished. For example:

InternMinnesota State Senate, St. Paul, MN
June 2019–August 2019

  • Researched prior legislation and current bills, summarized content, and identified alternate actions
  • Coordinated the schedule for Senator Harriet Maxwell and kept accurate minutes for all meetings
  • Drafted memos for important interoffice updates outside of normal meeting schedule


A skills section is a great way to make your most valuable knowledge and expertise stand out—and be easily spotted by a recruiter. Which skills belong in your own skill section depend on the jobs you’re applying for, so be sure to read the job description carefully to figure out what skills are most relevant for each particular role.

Skills that might appear in this section include (but are definitely not limited to): technical skills; software or other tools you know well; languages you can speak, read, or write; other job-specific skills like using a POS system or cash register; and, for some jobs, even your ability to drive different vehicles.

From this range, you can see why it’s important to change things up based on what job you’re applying to! Some skills—for example, being fluent or conversational in a second language—might be relatively permanent fixtures on a college resume. If you’re looking for a part-time job waiting tables, you might add the fact that you can bartend, whereas you might list your mastery in JavaScript instead when going after that software engineering internship you have your eye on.

Once you’ve decided which skills are most important for this role, you can simply list them on your resume. If you have a few different types of skills, you can separate them into categories. For instance:


Languages: Spanish (Fluent); Russian (Basic)
Software: JavaScript, Python, CSS

Note that just listing your skills in a separate section isn’t always enough. You also want to make sure to describe how you’ve used key technical and job skills elsewhere on your resume (usually in the bullet points of your experience section).

Other Optional Sections

There are some other sections you can consider adding depending on your experiences and what your target employer might be looking for. For example, a consumer product firm might be looking for examples of design work. In that case you could add a section called “Design Projects,” which might include significant assignments from some of your academic classes or independent projects that you’ve developed in your spare time. Don’t be afraid to include links to your work if you’re submitting your resume online! (Just avoid hyperlinking out from important words, as this could trip up the online systems that scan most resumes.)

Another popular section is “Leadership Experience” where roles like being the vice president for one of your student organizations or being a co-captain for your athletic team would be a good fit. Employers love to see leadership themes on resumes, as it demonstrates the transferable soft skills they’re looking for like communication, collaboration, and initiative.

An “Activities” section can also demonstrate skills. If you dedicate time to learning more about consulting cases with your consulting club, you likely increased your analytical skills in a team setting, which is valuable for many business roles. If you’re an athlete, you can showcase your ability to manage your time, create or be part of a cohesive team, or organize and motivate teammates during practices. These skills gained as an athlete can be ideal if you’re applying for a heavily collaborative role. Additionally, if the activities that you’re involved in are directly applicable to the job, these are powerful to include as it demonstrates interest and dedication. So if you’re majoring in healthcare administration, adding that you’re a member of the Healthcare Society on your campus can be a major plus for an employer.

Any optional sections like these will usually need to be set up similar to your experience entries. Include the organization (or class), your role, the location, the dates you participated, and your key achievements. Here is an example of an entry you might put under a “Leadership” heading:


Head DelegateModel United Nations, Northfield, MN
September 2019–April 2020

  • Researched global topics such as human rights and sustainable energy and developed persuasive positions
  • Represented Chile as a delegate in an education simulation at a conference with 2,000+ participants; negotiated with others and collaborated on common goals to deliver resolutions on political issues
  • Liaised between the delegation and the Secretariat, serving as a first point of contact and resolving issues


6 Tips for Writing a Successful College Resume

From formatting to crafting strong descriptions, attention to detail can pay off when tackling your resume. Here are six tips to help you develop a great resume:

1. Choose the Right Resume Format for You

Your parents or other family members might share their resume and have you copy it because it has worked for them. But they’re at a different place in their career and their format may not be the best one for you.

There are three main types of resume formats for laying out your experiences, skills, and education—the functional resume, the combination/hybrid resume, and the chronological resume. The chronological format is almost always the best fit for college students.

With a chronological resume, you’ll list your experiences within each category/section in reverse chronological order (most recent to least recent, based on end date). Since this is the most traditional and common resume format, recruiters are familiar with it and can quickly see what you have to offer.

2. Be Clear and Consistent

In terms of resume formatting, there are a lot of small choices to make about things like font, style, and spacing. Whatever you decide, make sure it is easily readable, consistent, and not overly fancy. You could have the greatest content in the world, but if it’s too difficult or annoying to read, a recruiter is going to move on.

In order to make a document easy to scan, use clear headers for your sections. Maybe they’re bold and in all caps, or maybe they’re a couple font sizes larger, but they should be the same throughout your resume. The rest of your content should be consistent as well. For example, all your organization or previous employer names might be in italics, your dates all right aligned, your locations in plain text, and the titles of your roles in bold. Keeping things uniform helps the recruiter easily absorb all the relevant information you want them to have.

3. Make Sure It Can Pass Through an Application Tracking System (ATS)

Formatting is also important because your resume will likely pass through something called an applicant tracking system (ATS), a type of software that helps recruiters organize incoming candidate applications. Recruiters can apply filters or search for keywords, and the ATS will show candidates matching the desired criteria, making it easier to identify good candidates in large applicant pools.

In order for your resume to pass this first round and make it to the human who has the power to get you to an interview, the ATS needs to see you’re a good match. But there are formatting choices that can confuse an ATS—for example, some won’t read the content inside tables, text boxes, or graphics. And if the ATS can’t read your materials, your resume might be filtered out. (Read more about formatting your resume for an ATS here.)

This all means that using one of the fancy resume templates you see online isn’t necessarily the best moveMost basic formatting can be achieved with bolding, italics, and spacing, and you will still end up with a good-looking resume—meaning that starting with a blank document can actually be a better bet. (If you still want to use a template, we’ve curated 41 free ATS-friendly templates here.)

4. Create Impactful Descriptions

Give the descriptions you use for your experiences some TLC, as this is what recruiters will focus on once you’ve caught their attention. I often discover students undersell—or simply forget—all the things they’ve done that might be interesting and of value to an employer (including those transferable skills).

Here’s an exercise that can help. Reflect on an experience (such as an internship you had or volunteer work you completed) and quickly jot down what you did. You don’t need to have much structure for this—try it as a brainstorm. Think about answering some of these questions:

  • What was your role?
  • What were the goals for that position or experience?
  • What tasks did you specifically do?
  • What projects did you work on?
  • Were there any side projects or tasks you completed?
  • Who did you work with?
  • What did you contribute?
  • What did you accomplish? (Or what did/do you intend to accomplish? This can be a useful way to think about things especially when considering research or longer term projects that are still in progress!)
  • Can it be quantified? Numbers can paint a clear and impressive picture of your accomplishments to someone reading your resume. You might write that you fundraised as part of the Student Government Association, and that will generally get your point across, but if you can say you increased SGA fundraising by 30% and were able to create two new social events attended by 100+ students each, that will make more of an impact. Look for ways to quantify your accomplishments wherever possible.

Once you have a good brainstorm, take the information you gathered and try crafting several statements using this formula:

Action Verb + Subject + Outcome/Purpose/Result (i.e. Accomplishment)

So you might say:

Organized a fundraiser event for 70 participants resulting in $1,000 in donations to a local hospital

Your descriptions are most valuable when leading with an action verb that reflects specific skills. For example, swap “Worked on” for “Collaborated on” and “Responsible for” with “Oversaw.” Other verbs I often recommend students use include:

  • Analyzed
  • Communicated
  • Created
  • Facilitated
  • Improved
  • Initiated
  • Led
  • Organized
  • Presented
  • Researched

5. Tailor Your Resume for Each Opportunity

Always tailor your resume to each specific job you apply to. Making it easy for the recruiter to connect your skills to what they are looking for can increase your chances of success. The job description is your blueprint and key to doing this. A couple of these exercises could help you identify what you’ll want to highlight.

  • Activity 1: Take the job description and go through and underline everything you’ve had some experience in. This might be specific tasks, software/programs/tools, or qualities. Write a quick note in the margin to highlight when you’ve done that. Underline things where you have transferable skills too. For example, if you’ve used a software that is similar to a software they’re looking for, underline it. A recruiter should be able to see on your resume that you used similar skills and would be a quick study.
  • Activity 2: If you aren’t sure which skills to emphasize, take the entire job description and pop it into a simple online word cloud generator, like TagCrowd. It automatically shows you the words most used in the description, which are likely of highest importance to the company or role. If you have those skills, make sure you mention them in your descriptions and mirror the language as exactly as possible (our friend the ATS will be looking for precise keywords!).

These activities can help you identify the right action verbs, keywords, and tools—like software—to weave into your descriptions. They can also help you decide what past experiences to include or which of your college courses are relevant to this role and which direct and transferable skills to highlight to make your resume a stronger fit for your target job.

6. Keep a Few Other Tried-and-True Tips in Mind

Here are a few other parting tips to keep in mind as you build your document:

  • Avoid writing in first person (“I,” “we,” “our,” and “my” statements).
  • Bullet points will make your document more readable—usually two to three per entry works well. But it doesn’t have to be even: Give more description space to the most relevant entries.
  • Attention to detail matters. Proofread—not just for typos, but to make sure formatting is consistent (like date dashes). Employers will use your resume to make assumptions about how detail-oriented you are.
  • Review any headers you put in all caps. Some spell checkers are programmed to assume that they’re acronyms and skip them.
  • Ditch jargon and acronyms wherever possible. Don’t assume the reader always knows what you’re talking about. Sometimes the first person reading your document is a general recruiter and not familiar with the technical side of a role.
  • Be aware of tenses. If you’ve completed an experience, those descriptions will be in past tense, and current roles can be described in present tense. (If you’re still actively involved in a role you can list the role through “Present,” and if more than one entry has the same end date, make a strategic decision to put the most relevant experience first.)
  • Acceptable margins are usually between one and 0.7 inches.
  • Pick a readable font, like Arial, Calibri, or Times New Roman, and try not to go below font size 11.
  • As a college student, stick to a one-page resume. However, you should consider keeping a longer version (called a master resume) for your own personal use. That’s where you keep a full record of your experiences to make it easier to pull out the relevant ones each time you tailor your resume for a specific job.

What Does a College Resume Look Like?

A college resume should showcase your education, experiences, and skills (direct and transferable!) in a clear way, while keeping in mind what is most relevant to your target employer. The resume below shows a student highlighting their relevant education and experiences specifically for internship opportunities in government and politics.


Feature | 05/23/2022

Tyler Wake and MJ Nilayamgode present at MMC

Graduate students Tyler Wake and Mrithyunjayan (MJ) Nilayamgode attended the Midwest Macro Conference at Utah State University in Logan, Utah on May 20 and 21, 2022. They presented original research co-authored with their advisor Ana Fostel, “Collateral Expansion: Pricing Spillovers from Financial Innovation,” and attended a variety of talks, including two keynote speeches from Ayşegül Şahin and Tom Sargent. Other UVA Economics PhD graduates in attendance included Joaquin Saldain (Bank of Canada) and Ia Vardishvili (Auburn University).

The Midwest Macroeconomics Conference began meeting in 1994 and is one of the longest- running dedicated macroeconomics conferences in the United States. Its next meeting will be in Fall 2022 at Southern Methodist University in Dallas, Texas.

Elzinga Flash Seminar

Feature | 08/12/2016

What Can I Do with an Economics Major?

Wondering what you can do with a major in Economics?  Find out here!

Feature | 12/01/2021

Jiafeng Wu Presents at 2021 SEA Conference

Fifth-year student Jiafeng Wu presented his paper, "Price and Efficiency in a Market for Generic Drugs in China," at the Models of Modern Markets session of the 91st SEA Annual Meeting. 

Elzinga Flash Seminar

Feature | 06/28/2021

Article: Rock Your Summer Internship!

17 Tips to Get the Most out of Your Virtual Internship

Summer internships are an important part of a lot of students’ college educations. Unfortunately, they’re not exempt from the confusion the coronavirus pandemic has wrought on every aspect of our lives.

The good news: Most employers are keeping internships going this summer. Only 22% of employers planned to revoke some internship offers as of May 1, according to a poll by the National Association of Colleges and Employers (NACE).

Instead of cancelling them, NACE reports, “In general, employers are adapting their summer 2020 internship programs by moving as much programming to a virtual space as possible.”

At least 83% of companies in the poll intend to adapt their internship programs to respond to social distancing and stay-at-home orders this summer.

That could mean your internship offer is still on the table — but that table might be in your kitchen.

Don’t let the switch ruin your summer internship experience. Here’s how to get the most educational, professional and networking opportunities out of a virtual internship.

How to Make the Most of an Internship From Home

An internship is a rich opportunity to learn and even to land a full-time job. Turning it virtual doesn’t have to take away those opportunities.

Follow these tips to get as much education and opportunity out of your virtual internship as you could get in person:

1. Surface the Right Strengths

Some fields are more adaptable to remote work than others. If you had planned to spend your summer doing anything but working at a computer, you might have to find new muscles to flex.

Like, if you booked a political internship focused on knocking on doors or talking to people on the street, you’ll probably have to shift gears to social media marketing. If you were going to work with kids in child care or educational programs, you’ll have to get comfortable engaging them on-screen.

Draw on all your classes to put peripheral strengths to use in a virtual internship, even if the work isn’t what you expected.

Things like writing and blogging, graphic design, communications, coding, digital marketing and social media, and data analysis translate well to remote work. Be prepared to take them on this summer — and learn job skills you didn’t think you would!

2. Set a Schedule

You have to show up for work from home just as much as you would in an office. Keeping a daily schedule will help you be fully present during work hours and also disconnect when you’re not on the clock.

Don’t roll over in bed and log into email on your laptop at 9 a.m. Develop a healthy morning routine, so you show up to your work fresh and ready to focus. Get dressed. Don’t let housework, pets or Netflix creep into your work hours just because they’re right there.

3. Set Boundaries With Family and Roommates

The people you live with might mistake your being at home with being available for chores or socializing. Set boundaries early, so they know this isn’t the case.

Let everyone in your house know your work schedule before you start, so they understand why you don’t have time for them during the day.

More important: Enforce the boundaries. When they stop by to chat you up, let them know you have to get back to work. When they ask you to help fold laundry, turn them down, and let them know you can do it after 5 o’clock.

4. Set up a Dedicated Work Space

Designating a work space will complement your schedule — and boundary-setting efforts.

Settling into the same place to work each day signals to your brain that it’s time to work. And creating a space your house mates recognize as a work space helps remind them when you’re at work.

It doesn’t have to be a home office or anything major if you don’t have access to that kind of space. Just choose a place you can work comfortably and with limited distraction. A porch with a little shade could be a perfect summer office!

I recommend avoiding your bed, because it’s too easy to become sleepy. And I recommend avoiding the kitchen table if you live with a lot of people, because kitchens are busy spots. But do what works for you.

5. Take Care of Your Physical and Mental Health

Working from home eliminates some natural opportunities a workplace usually offers for physical activity and socializing. You’ll need that kind of self-care to stay creative, productive and focused during your internship.

Remote work can be tough on your mental health under any circumstances. A pandemic only compounds it.

Take care of your mental health during a virtual internship by:

  • Talking to a therapist online or through teletherapy apps like BetterHelp and Talkspace.
  • Meditating with YouTube tutorials or apps like Headspace and Calm.
  • Going outside for fresh air and sunshine.
  • Decompressing at the end of the day through exercise, journaling, social media, reading or something else relaxing.

Getting exercise and moving around is also helpful for your mental health, just as much as it is for your physical health. (My advice: Start now. Your hips will thank you when you’re older.)

Check out these products to stay active and healthy while working from home.

6. Become Familiar With the Tech

Companies often expect students to be tech wizards — but being a digital native doesn’t mean you know how to use every tool out there. 

If an internship is your first foray into corporate work, you might have never used remote work technology before.

Familiarize yourself with the company’s tools right away. Take time on your first day to log into your accounts, explore the settings and address issues before they become an annoyance in the course of your work.

Some tips:

  • Start a practice call on a video conferencing app, and download whatever software it prompts you to. Set your video, mic and audio preferences.
  • Log into chat apps, like Slack or Skype, and fill out your profile with a name, photo and title.
  • Sign into your company email to make sure your password works.
  • Download video and chat apps to your phone, sign into your accounts and adjust your notification preferences.

7. Ask Questions

I’ve spent a lot of my career being the dumbest person in the room — and that’s a good thing. My biggest asset has been my willingness to ask questions.

Your coworkers expect curiosity from you as an intern. You’re there to learn! Don’t waste the opportunity trying to prove to professionals that you’re already an expert. You’re not.

A virtual internship might present less-obvious opportunities to ask questions — sitting in on meetings, running into coworkers in the break room or sharing a desk cluster with your team.

So you have to be assertive.


Speak up in virtual meetings or follow up via chat afterward. Ask “why” a lot, even when you think you know the answer. Respond to your manager’s requests to clarify tasks they want you to complete.

Lots of experts and employees say asking questions is vital to turning an internship into a job offer, so don’t shy away from your curiosity.

8. Ask About Company Culture

An on-site internship might present opportunities to dive into company culture, like lunch-and-learns or wacky dress-up days. But companies might not make that effort with a remote workforce, especially if they’re not accustomed to being separated.

Be proactive to show them you’re interested in participating in the culture, not just the job. Join virtual activities.

If no one is coordinating them, suggest some ideas to your team — a wacky-dress day can be just as fun over Zoom as in the office!

9. Keep an Internship Journal

You might have to log your hours and write a paper about your experience to earn college credit for your internship. But even if you don’t, I recommend jotting a few notes in a journal at the end of each day to reflect on your experience.

This is a useful way to decompress, take in the experience and understand what you’re learning. If you end up with internship coordinators who aren’t super engaged remotely, this self-reflection could come in extra handy.

10. Stay Open to Opportunities

Flipping the switch to a virtual internship might present you with unexpected opportunities. You’ll showcase strengths you didn’t expect to use, and the company will likely have needs it didn’t expect to have.

Stay open, and say yes to opportunities. Don’t turn tasks or projects down because they’re not traditional to your field or they’re not what you expected this role to be.

An internship is a place to learn, and staying nimble to possibilities — especially during a time that’s stressful for everyone you’re working with — is vital to your education and development.

11. Make Yourself Critical to the Company’s Success

In any internship, you could easily come in, complete your work and disappear at the end of the summer. Working remotely makes it even easier for you to totally fade from everyone’s memory when your internship ends.

Get ahead of that by doing the job so well the company doesn’t want to live without you.

Note that doing critical work could be a legal problem for an unpaid internship, so know your rights if a company actually can’t function without the work you do.

Instead, focus on being a star by being curious, taking on challenges and fitting into company culture, so the company can see how much of an asset you’d be as a full-time employee in any role.

How to Build Your Network Through a Virtual Internship

A major benefit of internships is building a network of mentors, professionals and other students in your field. Working from home could make that seem impossible.

Follow these tips to build your network virtually:

1. Do Your Homework

Ideally, you researched the company before applying, so you knew what you were getting into; or before your interview, so you could make a good impression.

But if you haven’t yet, bone up on the company’s history, mission, structure, operations and leadership. It’ll help you carry on conversations with your coworkers — and it’ll give you a great education in your field, too!

2. Find Everyone on Social Media

No matter how hard we try, virtual teams don’t seem to socialize as much as those working in a shared space. To make up for the lack of office chit chat, connect with employees and other interns through social media.

LinkedIn is an obvious place to start. You can connect with anyone from the company there to stay in tune with professional chatter. But polish your profile before sending the connection requests!

Twitter offers a similar opportunity to connect with people, even if you don’t know them well. If professionals in your field are active on Twitter, it might be a more useful platform than LinkedIn to follow and engage with influencers in the company, because Twitter users tend to get on the platform more regularly.

Facebook and Instagram might be appropriate platforms to connect with other interns and employees you work closely with. People are more active and personal on those, so they could help you forge connections that last beyond your internship.

3. Organize Virtual Events

Kudos to your company if it organizes virtual networking and social events for employees and interns. If it doesn’t — and that’s more likely — take the initiative to set them up yourself.

Reach out to human resources reps, a social committee or your supervisor, and suggest some ideas for virtual social gatherings to keep employees connected. If appropriate (i.e. if it’s not already someone else’s job), offer to coordinate it.


You can organize networking events with just fellow interns. Bonding with them will improve your experience and lay the bedrock for your professional network that’ll be valuable for years to come.

Consider these virtual social events via video conference:

  • Happy hours
  • Pub trivia
  • Game night
  • Yoga classes
  • Workouts or fitness classes
  • Sewing or knitting circles
  • Book club
  • Movie night (check out Netflix Party for Chrome to stay in sync)
  • Roundtable chats on fun or educational topics
  • Talent shows

The possibilities are broad; just get creative!

4. Dress to Impress (Including Pants)

Working from home is no excuse to look sloppy. You don’t have to force yourself into Spanx to smooth a pencil skirt over your thighs, but you shouldn’t show up to Zoom meetings in bottomless pajamas, either.

You’ll make an impression in virtual meetings just like you would in person, so dress accordingly. Brush your hair, and wash it occasionally. Wear a clean, comfortable shirt, and change it every day.

Getting dressed for the work day might feel silly, especially if you’re only on camera for a meeting or two.

But studies have shown what you wear impacts your creativity, confidence and attention to detail, Scientific American reports

5. Get on the Phone

I might be an old millennial, but I definitely don’t prefer a phone call if any other option is available. Still, I know they’re important.

You can forge a connection with someone over the phone — or a video chat — that you can’t via text or email.

If you find yourself in a complicated conversation over text, email or chat with someone on your team, suggest hopping on a phone or video call. It’ll help you find clarity and also provide an opportunity for small talk you’d probably skip over text.

You can also suggest purely social calls — reach out to coworkers, and ask to set up a call to chat and get to know them better. It might feel awkward compared to just bumping into them over lunch, but use the unusual circumstances as an excuse to be more assertive.

6. Take Advantage of Your Signature

Most of your communication with people at the company will probably be via email or chat. Use your signature or status on those platforms to showcase your personality and achievements, and show coworkers where to connect with you outside of work.

Some things you could include in your email signature and Slack (or other app) status or profile:

  • Your location
  • Emojis that represent how you’re feeling each day
  • An inspiring, positive or funny quote
  • Links to your website and social media profiles
  • Your career aspirations, like “Future human rights lawyer”
  • Your areas of focus, like “writing, design and social media”
  • A call to action to support your favorite charity
  • Your personality profile from Meyers-Briggs, Enneagram, StrengthsFinders or other tests

Rock Your Summer Internship — From Anywhere

You don’t have to go into an office to have a valuable internship experience. Be nimble, stay positive and make the most of the opportunity you have.

Completing a virtual internship will give you a valuable skill set that might be in increasingly high demand in the future: knowing how to work from home.

Dana Sitar (@danasitar) has been writing and editing since 2011, covering personal finance, careers and digital media.

Feature | 10/07/2022

Do You Have a Career Fair Pitch


Article written by Career Fair Plus.

Do you have an elevator pitch ready for your next career fair? An elevator pitch is a quick and memorable summary of your background and career interests. The name is a throwback to a time when prospective employees (or salespeople) waited in building lobbies to jump in an elevator with an executive. If the pitch went well, they chat all the way to the executive suite. If not, they would get off on the next floor, return to the lobby, and try again.

What is your goal?

Career fairs are designed to give you multiple opportunities to meet recruiters from organizations looking for college hires like you. Instead of lurking among lobby foliage hoping for a receptive audience, you'll walk up to a table where recruiters will welcome you. Still, your goal is to sell yourself quickly by making a good first impression in 30 to 60 seconds.

What should you say?

Start with your basic information: name, year in school, and major. Follow this with at least one accomplishment or skill relevant to your job search. This is the perfect time to briefly describe an internship or research applicable to your career field. If you don't have any real-world experience yet, you can talk about a paper or project from one of your classes. Wrap-up your pitch by sharing your career interests and goals, then offer the recruiter a copy of your resume. Carnegie-Mellon University has an excellent guide to preparing your elevator pitch with examples.

Be prepared to succeed

If your introduction goes well, you may spend the next several minutes talking to the recruiter. Keep the conversation moving by preparing a list of questions that you can ask. See our article on 8 Questions to Ask Employers for ideas. Also be ready to describe your strongest skills and abilities. Making a list of your strengths is also a good way to boost your confidence before you go to the career fair. Include details and specific examples.

Customize to each employer

Customizing your introduction to each recruiter gives you the opportunity to show that you are a serious job candidate. Take a few minutes to research employers on Career Fair Plus or the company's website so that you know what job openings the recruiters are trying to fill. It will only take a few minutes to formulate a couple questions for each company, but even that short amount of time will make you stand out from other candidates. Review your question list between each recruiter so that you remember the details accurately.

Follow-up Quickly

Send each recruiter a thank-you email right after you leave the career fair to build on the success of your introductory meeting. Thank the recruiter by name, restate your elevator pitch, and attach your resume. If something went wrong during your first meeting, this is the time to recover. Your elevator pitch is important, but it isn't the end of the world if you stumble on your words or another student interrupts you. Instead, this gives you the opportunity to show that you have the professional skills to pick up and try again.


A good elevator pitch is useful beyond the career fair floor. A succinct pitch sets a professional tone to your LinkedIn and other social media accounts. After practicing, your elevator pitch will become a natural part of the way you meet new people whether you are networking professionally or just meeting friends of friends at a dinner party. Take time to perfect your introduction and keep it update to date as you build your life beyond college. Preparation is the key to successfully navigating a career fair. If this is your first career fair, see some of our other blog articles like 5 Things to Know Before You Attend a Career Fair.

Elzinga Flash Seminar

Feature | 01/20/2017


"My bet is anyone born during the 1970s likely does it at least 10 times a day. Anyone born during the 1980s likely does it at least 20 times a day. And anyone born after 1990 probably has no clue that they do it close to 100 times a day. What I'm referring to is using the word "like," and using it incorrectly at that. And, like, it is not such a good thing. In fact, it is likely, like, hurting you in, like, interviews, meetings, and, like, pretty much any other work-related setting where you have to speak. Here's why: When you use the word "like" as a filler word or improperly, you typically come across as unengaged in what you're speaking about, unintelligent, nervous, indecisive, and as someone who's lacking a mastery of the English language."-Derek Loosvelt

Click here to read the rest of the article

Elzinga Flash Seminar

Feature | 04/21/2019

Making the Most of Your Summer Internship

Making the Most of Your Internship (from Goodcall https://www.goodcall.com/career/internship-tips/)

So – you landed an internship! Congratulations. But the work doesn’t end here. In fact, the real work is just beginning.

Internships are short – most last just a few months. That’s not very long to make an impact on the people around you – not to mention navigate a new industry, develop your skills and build a whole new base of knowledge. That’s why we’ve rounded up our top tips for making the most of your internship in a short period of time.

Be great, not just good

To make the largest impact on a company (and increase your chances of getting a job offer down the line, if that’s your ultimate goal), you need to go above and beyond just average performance. Krehmeyer shares some specific tips for figuring out what separates good from great: “Good interns understand the job. Great intern understand the company. Good interns are always on time. Great interns are the first in and last out. Good interns do exactly what is asked. Great interns anticipate the next step and ask for more. Good interns have strong technical skills. Great interns exhibit strong technial and soft skills. Good interns network well with leadership. Great interns are fully engaged with both peers and managers.”

Be active, not passive

It’s going to take more than just sitting back, keeping your head down and completing your assignments to really make the most of your internship. Take an active role when it comes to communicating with your manager and peers, asking for assignments and stepping outside the box. Palmer advises students, “From your interview to your exit, actively listen and summarize what you hear, be inquisitive and ask questions for clarification, keep your supervisor informed about your progress and activities, seek feedback and receive it in a gracious, professional manner.” He adds, “Don’t wait for assignments during a lull. See what needs attention and offer to help.”

Dowd agrees, suggesting that students take this opportunity as a chance to go outside their comfort zone. “Once you accept an internship,” he says, “it is time to focus on making the experience meaningful.  The more you go outside of your comfort zone on your internship, the more you will get out of it.”

Ask questions

One way to go outside your comfort zone? Talk to people at all levels of the company. Ask people in different departments, at different levels of seniority, to grab coffee or lunch or just to chat for a few minutes. Your new coworkers are the best resources you have to learn about the company and the industry, so just ask. Milliken says, “An internship is a wonderful opportunity for students to ask questions or request informational interviews with those in leadership positions at a company, because most professionals are eager and willing to share insight and advice with current students.”

Marzluff concurs, adding, “Ask someone in a role that you’re interested in to be your mentor. Maybe even suggest weekly or monthly meetings to check in, ask questions, and shadow.”

Reflect on your experience – both during and after

To really make the most of your internship, you need to think about the effect it’s having on your professional development – both after the fact and while you’re there. Palmer tells students, “Take the time to think about what you’re learning – not just about the organization, industry, or projects, but about yourself.”

Another great way to reflect on your progress is to ask for feedback often, from your manager and from others you work closely with. And don’t just take in the good. Marzluff encourages students, “Be open to receiving both negative and positive feedback. This is your time to fail fast.”

Stay in touch

The final thing you can do to make the most of your internship? Make sure you make a good impression right up until you leave, and then stay in touch with your contacts there. That means thanking your employer for the opportunity, saying goodbye to your manager and teammates and giving them the opportunity to connect with you in the future.

Palmer says that reaching out with thanks before you leave may make your employer more likely to write you a generous letter of recommendation down the line: “Appreciate the opportunities and support that you receive throughout your internship and always send a farewell message to your colleagues, not just your supervisor, extending your gratitude for the experience. In turn, your supervisor may show thanks to you by offering a letter of recommendation for you to share with future employers. Burrows suggests doing the same, as well as asking coworkers to connect on LinkedIn for future networking. “As they leave the internship,” she recommends, “students should thank anyone they have worked with and ask to connect on LinkedIn. Then, use the connection to stay in touch for future opportunities.”

Read more here!

Elzinga Flash Seminar

Feature | 09/26/2017


"You put together a solid resume and cover letter, and you’ve just been called in for an interview. If you’re like most job seekers, you may be thinking you’ll just throw on a decent outfit that morning, show up on time, and wing it. That’s fine, if your goal is to be like most job seekers. If you’d prefer to stand out from the crowd, read on."

Click here to read the rest of the article. 

Elzinga Flash Seminar

Feature | 08/12/2016

How to Ace your Graduate School Interview

Graduate school interviews can be a nerve wracking process. Learn how to impress from this helpful article.

Elzinga Flash Seminar

Feature | 09/11/2018

Cover Letter Tips

Some would argue that it’s easier to write a novel than it is to craft an effective cover letter opening. In a cover letter, so much hinges on one paragraph: your intro needs to successfully hook the viewer and compel them to keep reading, market you as a brilliant hire right off the bat, and be original enough to make you stand out. And yet, you only have a few lines to achieve all of this, and you know little about the addressee and what appeals to them.

It’s no wonder that the mere mention of the task tends to paralyze job seekers. But we’re here to help you out of your frozen state. Below are our eight tips for writing a cover letter opening that’ll definitely get you noticed.

1. Avoid generic introductions

Whatever you do, don’t open your cover letter with a line like, “I’m writing to apply for the position of [job title], which I saw advertised on [job board name] on [date]”. It’s dull, it’s uninspiring, and every recruiter has already seen it far too many times. Yes, it’s important to cover key details, like the position you’re interested in and the company name, at the start of your letter, but try do so in a more original way. You could even consider putting these basics in the subject line of your email (if you’re applying digitally) or in a “RE:” header (if you’re sending a hard copy) so you can use your introductory element to get straight to the meaty details that’ll win recruiters over.

2. Let your personality shine through

Naturally, you want to come across as a professional, but don’t open your letter in a manner that’s so excessively formal and dry that you sound robotic. Right from the get-go, you should give hiring managers a sense of who you are—after all, the point is to convince them that you’re a person worth meeting. So, use the first person “I”, inject charisma, showcase your quirks (if appropriate), and generally make it clear that there’s a unique human being behind the words.

3. Express enthusiasm

Enthusiasm is a good predictor of a strong work ethic, so recruiters will be looking for signs of it from sentence one. For this reason, you can’t go wrong if you start your letter by communicating your passion for the field and/or your affection for this company, above all others. Just make sure your declaration of love sounds genuine. You could, for example, include an anecdote (more below) that captures your long-standing devotion to the industry or reference a recent development at the company (like a ground-breaking study they just published) that reaffirms your desire to work for them.

4. Tell a story

Stories tend to make a much bigger impression on people than dry facts do. To make your cover letter opening memorable, start with a short narrative that ties into your love for the subject area or relationship with the brand. For instance, maybe you liked the company’s advertising jingle so much as a child that you once performed it in your school’s talent show. Or perhaps you’re so passionate about sport that you used to fall asleep with a football in your hands when you were young. Or maybe there’s a story worth telling around how you first came across the company as a customer. Whatever the tale, tell it as succinctly and authentically as you can, and it should also help you achieve points 2 and 3 above.

5. Be bold (but first, know your audience)

The best way to make your opening paragraph stand out? Do or say something no one else is doing or saying. Of course, getting a little creative with your opening can be a risky move, so first consider the kind of business you’re dealing with, research the company culture, and take note of the tone of voice used in the job ad. If you’re applying for a job at a startup that’s turning tradition on its head, then there’s room for you to be a bit daring and irreverent, to prove that you, too, can think outside the box. If, however, you’re expressing interest in a position at a large corporate company, like a banking firm, and the job posting uses formal language, then it’s probably safer to go the more conventional route.

6. Lead with an impressive skill or accomplishment

If you possess a relevant ability that few others do or have a major career accomplishment under your belt, then absolutely do open your cover letter with a mention of this fact. Details like these set you apart from other candidates, so you want hiring managers to be aware of them from the outset.

7. Name a mutual contact

One sure way to grab attention in your first paragraph is to mention the name of a common acquaintance, especially if this person recommended that you apply for the role. By associating yourself with someone who’s respected at the company, you automatically improve your chances of getting an interview.

8. Keep it short, sharp, and clean

The job of a cover letter is to sell you and your skills to a prospective employer. So, approach your introduction like an advertiser would approach ad copy—keep it concise, get straight to the point, and try to capture readers in as few words as possible. One tight paragraph will do – after all, the whole letter should be no longer than a page. Also make sure that it’s free of spelling and grammatical errors—typos are the enemy of a successful cover letter opening.

Since 2005, LiveCareer has been helping job seekers create resumes and cover letters via its free resume builder and cover letter builder tools. Also available are collections of free, professionally written resume templates and cover letter templates, all of which are organized by industry and job title.

Elzinga Flash Seminar

Feature | 11/01/2018

MarketWatch: Why Oil Prices are Plunging...

Why oil prices are plunging despite U.S. sanctions on Iran’s energy sector

The oil market has had nearly six months to assess the possible effect of U.S. sanctions on Iranian oil exports. Surprisingly, the prospect of significantly tighter global supplies has resulted in lower prices.

President Donald Trump announced on May 8 that he would end the participation of the United States in the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, a 2015 pact aimed at curbing Iran’s nuclear activities, signed by Iran, the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council, and the European Union.

Read more...https://www.marketwatch.com/story/why-oil-prices-are-plunging-despite-us...\


Read more 

Elzinga Flash Seminar

Feature | 11/16/2021

ECO Blog: Thanksgiving Edition

Hello Majors,

Wishing you a Happy Thanksgiving as you take a break from classes. It has been a pleasure serving our majors back on the grounds this semester, and I've been grateful for the opportunity to be here in-person with all of you.

Take some time after your Tgiving meal to think about how you'd like to spend your Winter Break. Just a little research now will pay dividends later. Here is a timeline of activities for our majors and some resources you may want to look at before your finals begin.

Planning for Winter Break. It will take no more than 10 minutes of your time to review the links below. In addition to JTerm classes, you may gain knowledge and experience through micro-internships and skill-building courses. Think about winter break as an opportunity to build your skills and experience through projects, work, online courses, or case competitions. Check out Coursera for short classes on dozens of business subjects and technical skills. Pick a short-term project posted by our awesome alumni through the Virginia Alumni Mentor network here. Real short-term projects have included:

  1. Research, analyze, and create reports of high net worth donors for equity programs
  2. Literature review for a gamification project
  3. Waste and Social Equity Mapping Project for a NYC group
  4. Design and Create Marketing Materials for a UVA Scholarship

Try out a micro-internship through ParkerDewey, (often paid) which is a hub for short-term experiences. Case competitions offer experience, contacts, and often a monetary reward. Check them out in Handshake and through MindSumo for an ever-changing array of opportunities.

Another route for winter break experience is to apply for seasonal/holiday work with an employer to get your foot in the door. Then, apply for full-time work once you are in the system and have a track record of solid performance. The ECO subscribes to flexjobs.com for our majors, which offers a wide array of flexible, remote, and part-time jobs across industries. Let me know if you'd like to use the subscription. And here are more! (Not all jobs relate to our majors' interests or skills.)

The ECO will be closed 11/18-11/28 for Thanksgiving. Appointments resume 12/1. You may sign up on Handshake now.

Best wishes!



Feature | 09/12/2022

Network, Network, Network!

Network, Network, Network!

By: Rebecca King-Newman

This article was taken from Firsthand

You know the old saying it’s not what you know, it’s who you know? One of the many things your law school does for you is set up networking events to allow students to interact with active lawyers. So, why should you network when you have already been in class all day and you have three papers to write? You should go because you want those attorneys to know you.

School Yourself

Your school sets up formal or informal events to connect the community and alumni with current students. They know that these events help create opportunity for both the attorney and the student. You may think it’s just another stuffy event to make the school look good, but it’s the perfect way to make in-person connections you wouldn’t otherwise make.

These events are also great practice for those on-campus interviews. Since they are usually informal, even if a suit and tie are required, they are not rigorous interviews that you need days to prepare for. Rather, they are a chance to meet people already practicing. Maybe there will be someone attending that is in the specialized field you think you want to target. Maybe there is someone present that works for that firm you covet a position with. No matter what, there will be someone at the event that will make attending worthwhile.

Another simple way to network is to join a student organization or two in law school. Most organizations will have a faculty advisor you can get to know outside of the classroom. Your fellow classmates can also surprise you. You will meet a diverse group of people, likely from all different parts of the country and world, who you may not normally socialize with. Those classmates can open doors to other interests and people that you might not have thought about. And that professor you feared and/or dreaded being in class with? He may be really funny or down to earth outside the classroom, and you can connect in a different way.

Speaking of professors and faculty, don’t overlook getting to know them, too! Many schools have professors with a wide swath of knowledge outside their current position. Most law school professors did not jump right into teaching. They had careers in the law before coming to teach, which means they have friends and associates from that practice life that can be beneficial to your future career. Hit up their office hours or invite them to lunch. Professors got into teaching because they want to help students, and this is your opportunity to reach out on a one-on-one level and get their help. You may find that one professor is more helpful than another, but give it a try and see who you connect with and who provides you with guidance.

Don’t forget to look at more fun, informal events. Many law schools will host casual meetups at local bars and restaurants, or golf outings with alumni and friends. Even though you have not graduated yet, these events are another opportunity to mingle with those already in the workforce. You may realize a person you admired is very approachable when they are in a restaurant as opposed to the corporate office. Seeing people you may be working for and with outside of the office is a good way to read how you interact with them—and how they interact with you and other students.

Don’t stop at events only put on by the law school. There are other non-traditional events and outside school events that can benefit your future career. Most law schools are attached to an undergrad university or college. Go to Homecoming events and start talking! You’ll be amazed who you meet and what industry they are in. And if a person is loyal enough to the school to come back for Homecoming—they’re loyal to fellow students and alumni. That can bode well for future career connections.

Go Off Campus

Many local and state bar associations also welcome law students to come to their meetings and events. This is especially useful when you want to practice in the same location as your law school. Attorneys love to promote themselves and their work, so start up a conversation with someone at a bar event, and you will likely come away knowing a lot about that person, the practice and the firm.

Think about attending continuing legal education (CLE) events. You don’t need to start racking up CLE credit yet, but many events will allow law students to attend for little or no cost. CLE sessions will teach you more about the real practice of law in the area you may have an interest in. Let’s face it, law school teaches you the mechanics of law, but at a CLE, you are learning about real life issues that come out of the actual practice. Usually they include case law updates, which are invaluable in your practice area. These events also address common issues in the area of law and how local attorneys are addressing them. Again, there is always someone to meet and learn about by attending.

Get Social

Social media is also an important way to network. Many schools have alumni pages and groups on Facebook where events are posted, and questions are asked. Twitter and Facebook often are informal and are a good way to learn about people and their careers. LinkedIn is also a way to connect in a more professional setting. LinkedIn also is a valuable tool to read company profiles, find out who works at a firm from your school, and see the job opportunities that are available. Make sure your social media presence is fit for the job, too. Check your settings on who can view your profiles, and clean up any older, less flattering posts. Many firms have people who will look at your online social media presence to make sure there are no red flags. Law school is a transitional phase of your life, where you are trying to form your future legal career. Remember the old lawyer joke that you should post like someone will read it later in court!

Making connections doesn’t have to be restricted to law-related events and organizations. If you like a certain charity or organization, volunteer and get involved. If politics is your thing, join the local party organization and attend their events and lunches. Recreational groups are also an excellent way to get out and meet people. Running clubs, biking groups, and cooking classes are all ways to meet people in the community and enlarge your circle. While it may not be traditional networking, from a law student perspective, you may be surprised at how adept you become at meeting new people and striking up conversations naturally, which will pay off for that more formal networking event or interview.

Know Before You Go

So now that you have decided to check out some of these events, despite your busy school schedule, what things do you need to do to prepare? First of all, know the audience. Is this an event put on by the school? If so, see if you can find out who may be in attendance. Do some homework on those attorneys and organizations before you go, but not with the aim of turning this into a full-fledged interview. Rather, you want to at least know a little about the person and firm before striking up a conversation.

Another thing to find out is if the event is formal or informal. Is a suit going to be required, or is business casual more appropriate? If it is an informal event, make sure you wear something appropriate and not your favorite sweatpants. Will there be food and drink provided? If so, make sure to curtail your drinking so you are presenting yourself in a responsible manner.

Don’t forget to brush up and practice your elevator speech. It may seem silly to practice out loud, but reciting the speech in your voice—and even to yourself into a mirror—helps you hone the message and make sure you come off as genuine. Make the speech how you normally would speak, and not like you were writing it out for submission. This is your chance to make an impression on someone who will be back to school for that on-campus interview, or someone who makes important hiring decisions at a firm.

Keep an open mind when you attend these events. You may go into it thinking you really want to meet a certain partner because she works at the firm where you want to work. After meeting this partner, you may realize she is not a fit with what you initially thought about the firm. Then you may turn around and meet someone else at the event you did not think you would want to meet, and find out that firm or that person does exactly what you want to do. Law school is as much about finding out what you like as what you do not like. If you go into the event with an open mind, you may surprise yourself on what you discover. Don’t forget to ask for a business card or contact information.

Networking can be fun and the most interesting part of law school. It can teach you a lot about people, firms, and yourself. If you make it a priority to network almost as much as you study, the rewards will be tenfold. It will help you be prepared for that on-campus interview. It will open your world to people and places you want to work, and maybe some that you want to avoid. Networking will round out that law school experience and get you outside the classroom. So, get that elevator speech ready, wear your best attire for the event, and have fun!


Elzinga Flash Seminar

Feature | 04/03/2023

Advice From A CEO: How To Create A Career You Love

Article written by Caroline Castrillon from Forbes.

Chances are you’ve come across books or articles describing the process of “finding” yourself. But a more accurate description is that we as humans “create” ourselves—including our careers. A career you love isn’t waiting to be discovered under a rock or deep in a wooded forest. The process is much more intentional. It requires courage, self-knowledge, and a willingness to disassociate yourself from the outcome. These are just a few insights that emerged following my conversation with Sharon Price John, President and CEO of Build-A-Bear Workshop and author of Stories & Heart.

One thing is certain; John doesn't run from adversity. She embraces it. But that’s not all that makes her an exceptional leader. In Stories & Heart, John uses her gift of storytelling to share personal experiences that provide a roadmap for anyone who wants to create a life and career they love. Here are just a few of the biggest takeaways.

Clarify your goals

Life is a journey; to create a career you love, you need to know where you’re going. That means identifying your goals. Once you’ve pinpointed them, John suggests writing them down and visualizing them as if they are already a part of your life. There is something powerful about writing down your goals, and there is research to back it up. Dr. Gail Matthews, a psychology professor at Dominican University in California, conducted a study on goal setting and found that participants were 42% more likely to achieve their goals just by writing them down. Finally, you must have the "gumption" to stick with your goals. Gumption, according to John, "is a mix of drive, passion, and creativity—not just sheer will.”

Define your values

Ultimately, people are happier when their value system aligns with their job or career. So to create a career you love, think about what is most important to you. These values could range from flexibility to a corporate environment that embraces teamwork and transparency. John adds, “by clarifying who you are deep down and the type of person you aspire to become, you will more easily recognize what really matters to you—so future decisions can be made more quickly with greater clarity, less stress, more conviction, and little regret.”

Take action

In the book, John explains why people don't take action. They either don't really believe achieving their goal is possible, or they are afraid of failure. One approach is to ask yourself, “What’s the worst that could happen?” Another tactic is to relabel the fear as something more positive, like excitement. Relabeling the feeling makes it much easier to manage. At that point, you can work on breaking your bigger goal down into smaller, more manageable steps.

Embrace planned serendipity

While learning to set and achieve goals is part of creating a career you love, it’s not usually a straight path. In fact, a few unexpected turns may be just what you need to reach your destination—a concept called planned serendipity. Planned serendipity is the idea of putting yourself in unfamiliar situations to be exposed to previously unknown people and experiences. It could be as simple as breaking your routine by taking a new route to work or sitting at a different table in the cafeteria. By altering your surroundings, you are opening yourself up to new ways of thinking. John points out, “I have found in my life that if I opened my mind to possibilities and then put myself in unfamiliar environments, it is a mechanism for awakening yourself to ideas.”

Redefine failure

Failure isn't a deterrent to success; it is part of being successful. It is much more empowering to think of failure as a stepping stone rather than an undesirable event. By labeling it as a learning experience, you turn failure into something positive. “The key to overcoming failure is to entirely redefine the concept, writes John. “When you can do this, you can also redefine your life.”

Trust your instincts

Albert Einstein once said, “the intuitive mind is a sacred gift, and the rational mind is a faithful servant. We have created a society that honors the servant and has forgotten the gift.” When creating a career you love, you’ll want to gather as much data as possible and then balance that data with intuition. Just remember that intuition doesn’t usually present itself as a sudden “aha” moment in the form of a thunderbolt. As John points out, “instincts often do not yell and scream. They whisper. If your world, your mind, your life is too loud, they will be drowned out. You have to learn to be quiet and listen to them first.”

In the end, John reminds us that the whole point of creating a career you love is to find fulfillment. “Humans are meant to do something with their lives, she says. “That something is meant to create value, and that value is meant to help fulfill you. That's the great circle of it all."

Elzinga Flash Seminar

Feature | 01/29/2019

Alumni Spotlight: Rachel MacKay

Elzinga Flash Seminar

Feature | 08/12/2016

A Different Recruitment Method

Large companies are hiring recruits first then assigning a job role to them later. Review the insightful comments at the bottom of the articles.


Feature | 10/11/2016

ECON Alum: Yingqi Liu, Class of '16

1. Why did you choose to study economics?

Coming into UVa, I knew that I wanted to major in something that is theory-based and can give me solid quantitative trainings. Economics major offers me these, and I can also apply theories that I have learned in class to explain phenomenon in my daily life.

2. What courses/professors have been the most influential and why?

I enjoyed taking many classes, including Industrial Organization with Professor Mills and Econometrics with Professor Michener. If I had to pick, perhaps Antitrust Policy with Professor Elzinga would be one of the most influential courses. In class, we examined the progression of court rulings of interesting antitrust issues over time, some of which took place during the timeframe of the class. I got a much better understanding of economic consulting, and applied for my current job.

3. Over the summer you worked as an intern. In your own words, what did you do in this role? How was it related to your major/how did you use what you've learned in the department to secure this role and on the job?

I interned at a wealth management firm over the summer. It was mainly a client-facing role with access to the most up-to-date market research data. I got to work with a wonderful team and learned more about the financial industry. The analytical training in the Econ Department prepared me well for this role.

4. What career goals do you have for your future?  (immediate/long-term)

I will work for Cornerstone Research after graduation. After a few years, I plan to attend graduate school (MBA or JD).

5. If the ECO has helped in your experience at U.Va., kindly share how/why.

The ECO has been an extremely valuable resource in every stage of my career exploration. By attending numerous career panels, I got to see a wide variety of industries and met many distinguished Econ alumni. I also enjoyed speaking with Jen, who always provided me with constructive feedback and steered me toward the right direction.

6. What is a fun fact about you?

I graduated from a high school in Green Bay, Wisconsin. I did go to Packers games and I do own a Packers jersey, but I have never worn a cheese hat.


Feature | 09/12/2018

Econ Grads Soccer Match, a Yearly Tradition

It is a yearly tradition for current Econ graduate students to meet, greet, and challenge the incoming class to a friendly soccer game. Current students include Hunda 'Hazard' Kebede, Abiy 'The Ankle Breaker' Teshome and Joaquin 'El Matatopos' Saldain, among other stars. After this first dust-up, new students are invited to join the Econ Grad soccer mailing list and team. Though you couldn't tell from this picture, this 2018 game was a co-ed event, and we hope that in future years, more female students will participate!



Feature | 09/22/2023

Merrick Lecture with Prof. Amy Finkelstein

MERRICK LECTURE with Amy Finkelstein.  She will be discussing her book "We’ve Got You Covered"
Marshaling original research, striking insights from American history, and comparative analysis of what works and what doesn’t from systems around the world, Finkelstein and Einav argue for automatic, basic, and free universal coverage for everyone, along with the option to buy additional, supplemental coverage.

The lecture will be on Friday, September 22, 2023, from 11:15am - 12:15pm, in the Rotunda Dome Room

Elzinga Flash Seminar

Feature | 08/12/2016

What Percent of Interns Receive Full-Time Offers?

Vault recently released its Top Internship Rankings for 2016. These included a prestige ranking, an overall best internship ranking, a best internship for quality of life ranking, and several rankings by industy. The rankings were created from the results from our annual internship survey, which asked nearly 6,000 current and former interns to rate their internships, as well as their dream internship employers, in various categories.

In addition, the survey asked interns to tell us if they received or expected to receive a full-time offer at the end of their internship from their internship employer and, if so, if they were going to accept that offer (note: the survey was administered at the end of this past summer, when some interns were still interning).

(You may need to login into HandShake to access this article).

Elzinga Flash Seminar

Feature | 08/01/2021

Article: Careers & Leadership: Hybrid Work's Uneven Playing Field

The Hybrid Playing Field

Illustration: James Steinberg

Uneven odds: Working from home these many months has come with a lot of ups and downs. But for many remote professionals, one thing held constant: Nearly all of their colleagues were also remote, and few had a choice. If you're someone who thrives under remote conditions, you didn't have to make excuses for it.

Now that playing field is getting shaken up all over again. Some colleagues are returning to the office five days a week. Others are testing a hybrid schedule, or opting not to go back at all.

If you’re the one leaning into flexibility, how do you make sure you’re not unintentionally leaning out of your career? And what happens if certain subsets of the workforce, like mothers, are less likely to return to the office?

Some employers say they are watching closely as to whether hybrid work creates two classes of employees—those who are there for lots of office facetime with bosses and others plugging away, often unnoticed, at home. Surveys show many bosses assume off-site employees are doing less.

Some working parents of both genders say they're aware of the career risks of staying remote. “I know the remote part isn’t going to help me, but I’m willing to sacrifice it right now,” says Jessamyn Edwards, a product designer who moved from the Bay Area to a house in rural Spring Grove, Va., and is still breastfeeding her youngest daughter.

Employers, too, face risks with how they approach remote work. JPMorgan Chase, Goldman Sachs and other Wall Street banks have taken a hard-line approach with office-reopenings, beefing up in-person staff five days a week in New York even though it might mean losing talent. Rivals including Citigroup see an opening,  betting a more flexible approach will help them recruit top traders and deal makers.

As one remote-work consultant advising the banks says: “The great experiment starts…when some go back to the office full time and some don’t.”

— Vanessa Fuhrmans, deputy careers bureau chief, WSJ

Reach me at vanessa.fuhrmans@wsj.com or on Twitter @vjfuhrmans.

Career Starters

From childhood puzzles to Roblox: Who hasn't fantasized about parlaying a playtime activity from youth into a livelihood as a grownup? Andrea Fletcher, a full-stack software engineer at online game platform Roblox who has also worked at Google and Apple, says her career really began with a childhood love of logic puzzles that involved math and patterns. She walked us through how she turned that into a dream career.

'Financially hobbled for life': Elite universities in recent years have awarded thousands of master’s degrees that don’t provide graduates enough early career earnings to begin paying down their federal student loans, according to a WSJ analysis. One example: Recent Columbia film program graduates who took out loans had a median debt of $181,000, yet half of the borrowers were making less than $30,000 a year.



Elzinga Flash Seminar

Feature | 08/12/2016

The Reality of Student Debt is Different from the Cliches

Matt Chingos and Beth Akers from The Brookings Institution, who participated in an Econmics Career Office panel in 2013, have published their piece about student debt.  You may find the piece in its entirety here.

Elzinga Flash Seminar

Feature | 10/20/2017


by Samantha McGurgan

Congratulations—you got the offer! This is cause for a celebration! Except…why are you experiencing the sinking feeling of dread? You may feel obligated to accept the offer because you already invested so much time and effort in getting to this point, and starting over takes So. Much. Work. You might be thinking:

Is it ok if I say no?
Who says no in this economy?
How do I even determine if it’s not right for me?

As someone who has said no to few offers over the years, I understand how uncomfortable and scary it is to say no to a perfectly good offer on paper. And I can also attest to the fact that I have never regretted saying no to job that didn’t feel right, and only have regretted saying yes. Here are a few questions to ponder through this decision-making process:

1.) How does your body feel? Stop analyzing, over-thinking, second-guessing, and Googling for the answer. Check in with your body: what is your gut telling you? Listen to it. Unapologetically. It’s never wrong. It’s normal to have a bit of nerves when facing a new challenge or embarking on new territory. But there’s a difference between distress (unhealthy) and eustress (healthy). Get to know how your body reacts to negative and positive stress by reflecting on the last time you experienced something of each type—how did it feel? How do those two experiences compare?

For me, I feel depleted, tired, and unconsciously withdraw when experiencing distress. I clench my teeth. Deep down I know it’s not right, but I run over it repeatedly in my mind trying to find a way to make it work. My husband says: You just got an offer—why aren’t we celebrating?

Conversely, I feel charged up, energetic, and motivated when faced with the possibility of a new and exciting challenge (aka a job I actually want). I feel inspired. I literally jump for joy after getting the call that I’ve been selected as the top candidate. I feel like everything was worth it after all.

Bottom line: If the offer doesn’t make you feel good, this is a warning sign. It’s worth it to wait for the job that won’t make you want to quit after three months.

2.) Are you running toward the finish line or being chased by wolves? Both of these instances involve quick, forward momentum. The difference lies within the motivation. My first question is always: Do you want the job or are you afraid that it’s your only option?

There are currently more job openings in the United States than people who are unemployed. The culture of scarcity that has been drilled into us since the Great Recession doesn’t reflect the reality of the job market. Given that you are qualified for the role you are seeking, wait for the job that will provide a sustainable opportunity for career growth, rather than accept the first one that comes along (if it’s not truly what you want).

Many of my graduating seniors who are in the midst of their first job plan on accepting a position as a safety net with the intent to keep looking for a better option. I ask them to think deeply about what is lacking in the opportunity, decline the offer, and seek one that is a better fit.

This doesn’t mean don’t accept an entry-level position. This means don’t settle for something okay when you could have something even better if you’d only waited another month or two. Or six. And don’t accept an offer with the intention to bail when something better comes up.

Bottom line: You’re going to find a job. Trust in that. And aim high. Do you really want to go through the interview process any time soon anyway? If you’re already planning to quit before a year or two, decline the offer.

3.) What do you want your life to look like?

If you’re like me, you’ve found yourself lying awake at night asking the Internet for a glimmer of hope or a strategy to make a non-ideal offer work with my life.

Ok Google: Is there a way to spend a two-hour commute that won’t make me angry and hateful?

I’m exaggerating, but the answer is no. For me. Because I have a family, and I know the excitement of a new role would quickly wear off after spending 12 hours each day away from home. Other people I’ve spoken to don’t mind their commute at all because they love their job so much. The question to ponder is, how will this job affect the rest of my life and therefore my happiness? How does this position relate to my ultimate goal? There are going to be sacrifices. Let’s make the sacrifices worthwhile.

Bottom line: The more you know yourself and your goals, the better you can discern if the position is right within the context of your life as a whole.

Samantha McGurgan is a career counselor at California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo, and college success adjunct at Cuesta College. Her greatest moments of joy involve expanding the career horizons of first generation students and supporting military-connected students in their transition to civilian careers. She holds an M.A. in education, with a specialization in counseling and guidance in student affairs from Cal Poly SLO, and a B.S. in human ecology from The Ohio State University.

Courtesy of the National Association of Colleges and Employers.


Elzinga Flash Seminar

Feature | 11/09/2021

ECO Blog: What Do Econ Majors Do after Graduation?

Hello Econ Majors,

As you consider your internship, externship, or job search, it can be helpful to know graduates, who have passed through Monroe Hall before you, are doing now and what they did immediately after graduating. 

The ECO recommends the following resources to help you review where recent graduates work and attend graduate school. Additionally, I've shared below resources, which more broadly, convey industry opportunities that Econ majors often pursue. With any questions, please feel free to schedule an appointment with me.

ECO First Destination Reports: Data gathered from graduate surveys and scraping data from the web.
UVA Career Outcomes Reports: Data gathered from graduate surveys and scraping data from the web (all majors).
ECO Alumni and Friends List: This list includes more than 500 economics majors, sorted by employer, who have offered to provide career advice to majors.
LinkedIn Group for Economics Majors: All majors are welcome to join this group.
LinkedIn Results of Economics Majors Query: These are the results of filtering our UVA alumni by reported major on LinkedIn. The results will populate in order of number of employees. More than 15,000 UVA LinkedIn members are affiliated with an economics major. Filter by recent graduation dates and internship information will be more accessible. Consider these employers for your own internships.
What Can I Do with an Economics Major: Lists employers by sector, industry, and job function. Includes dozens of majors to review.

Then, consider using these tools above to help you network with people in industries/job functions that interest you. Complement this research with your PathwayU results to even further refine your search. PathwayU is an online interest assessment endorsed by UVA career offices, which matches your reported interests with industries and job functions. The assessment takes about 30-45 minutes to complete and you may review the results independently or with a career advisor. 

Wishing you a fantastic week!

Jen Jones

Elzinga Flash Seminar

Feature | 09/25/2018

The Secret to Standing out in Interviews Is Almost Too Obvious

Impressing a stranger, standing out from the competition, earning an offer—these are all challenges, even for an experienced professional who should be a perfect fit.


Because the higher up you climb on the ladder, the more you’re competing against candidates with similar impressive experiences and qualifications.

As a CEO and interviewer for many years, I’ve met so many great people I ended up passing on.

So, your next question is probably, “Well, then how do I stand out?”

Here’s the big secret that has nothing to do with your resume bullet points: Your strongest selling point, your best competitive edge, is yourself. Truly—no one can copy that.

How do you show who you are over the course of a job interview? Try the following approaches:


1. Knock “Tell Me About Yourself” Out of the Park

I ask this question at the beginning of every interview (and so do many, many other people in charge of hiring). Luckily for you, the typical response is generic and long—meaning you have the opportunity here to make yourself memorable.

Consider and practice your response before entering the room. Think of it like a book’s back-cover synopsis: You’re trying to excite and encourage the interviewer. You want her to want to learn more about you—aim to make him or her curious. (Bonus: Include something that isn’t on your resume because the element of surprise can spark additional curiosity.)

If you’re not specifically asked “Tell me about yourself” during the interview, be proactive and find a way to share your answer during the conversation.


Continue here: https://www.themuse.com/advice/this-secret-to-standing-out-in-interviews...


Feature | 11/21/2022

Top 6 Skills Employers Are Looking for in Recent Grads in 2022

Article from The Muse

Recent college graduates, I have good news and bad news. The bad news is that fewer employers than ever care about entry-level candidates’ GPAs—so all those exam and assignment grades that had you camping out in the library are worth less than you may have thought. 

The good news is that fewer employers than ever care about entry-level candidates’ GPAs—so the actual knowledge and skills you gained from your education and other experiences matter way more than the numbers on your transcript.

According to a new report from the National Association of Colleges and Employers (NACE), 37% of employers intend on screening recent grad applicants by GPA—down from a recent high of 73.3% just a few years ago.

As a recent grad, you’re probably more aware than anybody that grades aren’t necessarily a reflection of how much you learned in school or what you’re capable of in a work environment. This shift “signals a recognition that screening by GPA may weaken efforts to build an inclusive workforce as it can put students who are balancing school with work and other responsibilities at a disadvantage in the job market,” NACE executive director Shawn VanDerziel said in a press release.

So what are employers looking for in recent grads? The skills and abilities that you’ll actually use in the workplace. Here are the attributes that the most employers ranked as very/extremely important for the 2022-2023 recruiting year:

  1. Problem-solving skills (61.4% of employers said this was very or extremely important): Employers want workers who can identify issues and come up with solutions. Regardless of what your major was, you likely had to evaluate different aspects of an issue or question, decide on possible methods for finding an answer or drawing a conclusion, execute on one of these methods, and back up your decisions—all vital components of problem-solving.
  2. Ability to work in a team (61%): Those group projects were good for something. You can also use team sports and other group extracurriculars to demonstrate your ability to work well with others.
  3. Strong work ethic (52.4%): You just finished college, and you may have managed part-time jobs and/or extracurriculars on top of that. So you know how to work hard and get things done. (Read more about how to demonstrate soft skills—like work ethic—in your job search.)
  4. Analytical/quantitative skills (50.4%): These are the skills that help you find, evaluate, and synthesize information to make decisions and/or solve problems. For example, in college you may have had to analyze data for science or business courses, or you may have had to choose the right sources and incorporate them into a research project or paper.
  5. Communication skills (50%): Communication skills encapsulates any way you might share or receive information from others. In college you participated in class discussions, put together presentations, sent emails, and submitted written assignments like papers and lab reports.
  6. Technical skills (50%): Technical skills are the ability to use certain pieces of technology or specific methods or techniques, such as creating formulas in Excel, coding in Javascript, or optimizing conversion rates for a marketing campaign. As a recent college grad you definitely have some already and and can likely pick up more of them quickly.

Bonus tips for showing off your skills as a recent grad

So how do you show companies that you have these skills and qualities? Here are a few pointers for your resumecover letter, interview, and overall job hunt:

  1. Figure out what a specific company wants by closely reading the job description they’ve posted. Then, tailor your resume and other application materials to emphasize the skills you have that matter most for this job.
  2. Leverage internships and part-time jobsThese experiences show that you have the professional skills necessary to thrive in a full-time role. In fact, the NACE report found that relevant internship experience is the top deciding factor when there are two equally qualified recent grads competing for a position.
  3. Don’t restrict experience to paid work. Volunteer experienceextracurricular activitiesprojects, and coursework are all ways you could have acquired and used the skills employers are looking for. So mention that fundraising event you organized for a local hospital or the project that sent you out into the field to observe wildlife behavior.
  4. Don’t skip the cover letterCover letters can be hard to write, but even when they’re optional, they’re almost always worth it. You can use your cover letter to give specific examples of when you’ve used the skills an employer is looking for and connect your education and past experience to the entry-level role you want.
  5. Prepare for your interview. Be ready to answer common interview questions and prep a few stories that show how you’ve used skills and demonstrated qualities employers are looking for.
Elzinga Flash Seminar

Feature | 01/25/2022

ECO Blog: Approaching a Virtual Career Fair

Image Courtesy of Indeed.com


Hello Economics Majors,

I found the article below on LInkedin and thank Rasmussen University for their sound advice. These are great tips for attending a virtual career fair. Use this companion dress code guide to help you prepare. The ECO recommends at least business casual attire for this week's job fair; but, even smart casual can work. 

There are many fairs coming up in the next four weeks, starting off with UVA's Spring Job and Internship Fair this Thursday, 2/3. Take a moment to read the article below to help you prepare! Then open Handshake to check out this week's fair's employers.  

A final tip from the ECO: If your employers of choice do not have vacancies in their one-to-one schedules, visit with your second-tier employers. Take a chance with an unknown, and let them know you were curious to learn more. 

Best wishes

Jennifer Jones, Director
Economics Career Office

What can you expect at a virtual career fair?

Virtual career fairs are just like traditional ones, where employers gather to meet with job seekers and discuss employment opportunities. The only difference here is that it’s held virtually on an interactive platform.

Virtual career fairs feel similar to online discussion posts. After you log in, you can choose to “enter” various rooms within the virtual career fair. Each room houses a different employer participating in the career fair. When you enter a room, the employer receives a notification. At that point, a representative from the employer will greet you via a chat function.

“Employers in virtual career fairs are very engaging. They’re there because they’re eager to hire and are looking to engage with potential candidates like yourself,” says Jessica Koltz, Rasmussen University Career Service advisor. “Once they greet you, they’re looking to receive some engagement from you in return.”

Others already in the virtual room may be in the midst of a conversation, and you are welcome to chime in. Otherwise, you can also opt to chat privately with an employer, where you may ask about open positions, details of the organization and your qualifications. Employers may even want to video chat with you to get to know you better face-to-face.

In many ways, virtual career fairs mirror traditional, in-person ones. Now that you know what to expect, study up on the following tips and expert advice to make the most of this exciting opportunity.

Before the virtual career fair

Don’t “walk” into a virtual career fair with zero preparation. These are the things you’ll want to do ahead of time to set yourself up for success.

1. Register ahead of time

You’re going to want to register beforehand. Not only will this prevent any last-minute hiccups before the career fair, but it will also allow you to get a glimpse at the employers who will be participating in the fair. Which leads us to our next tip…

2. Research participating organizations

After registering, take some time to review the organizations attending the career fair. You’ll want to get an idea of some of the companies you’d like to meet with. You also don’t want to walk in unprepared—learn about the companies, and think of questions you’ll want to ask.

“At virtual career fairs, companies look for candidates who are curious and ask questions,” says John Capra, zone recruiting manager at Combined Insurance. “In order to stand out from the crowd, candidates should do their research and know about the companies and positions they are interested in.”

3. Prepare your resume

This is a no-brainer, yet it’s so important. Because you’re going to provide your resume to employers you meet with, you’re going to want it up to date and spotless for the optimal first impression.

“Don’t wait until the last minute to review your resume,” says Amy Ites, Rasmussen University senior Career Services advisor. “Have it updated, proofed and reviewed by someone else ahead of time.”

The same goes for your LinkedIn® account or a portfolio of your work samples. If the platform allows, upload your resume to your account so it is accessible and ready to hand over to any employers you meet with at the career fair.

4. Practice your pitch

How will you introduce yourself? Why are you interested in the company? What types of positions are you seeking? How is your previous work experience relevant? What do you plan on asking the representatives at the virtual career fair?

You’ll want to spend some time mulling over questions like these so you’re ready to answer them without hesitation when the time comes. Your well-thought-out responses could impress a recruiter—and even allow you to stand out from the crowd of applicants.

5. Make sure your technology is ready to go

You’ll want to make sure your device is capable of supporting you in the virtual career fair. While it is definitely preferable to have camera capabilities in case an employer would like to speak with you face-to-face, you don’t necessarily have to have a device with a camera, says Ites.

You should also try a dry run the day before the virtual career fair to ensure smooth sailing on the big day, advises Chris Brown, vice president of Human Resources at West's Unified Communications.

“Plan an IT dress rehearsal before to avoid last-minute surprises. Also, be sure to download necessary software for the fair, if need be. Install these a day early, leaving enough time to clarify any troubleshooting questions you may have.”

He also advises attendees to think long and hard about the type of device they plan to use.

“Choose your device wisely. To avoid shaky camera syndrome, use a desktop, laptop or propped-up tablet rather than a smartphone that you’ll need to hold throughout the conversation,” he says.

You may also want headphones if you cannot attend from a quiet, private location.

At the virtual career fair

Once you log in, how can you stand out from the crowd at a virtual career fair? Here are a few pieces of key advice.

6. Wear a professional outfit

You can expect to interact with employers at a virtual career fair through chat functions. However, some employers may wish to speak with you in a video call. Make the most out of this opportunity to make a connection by looking professional and presentable.

“If you have an opportunity to get face-to-face with an employer, why wouldn’t you want to be ready for that?” asks Koltz. “If you’re going to be on camera, be prepared to look professional from at least the waist up. You can wear your yoga pants, but make sure you have a button-up shirt and suit coat on top.”  [The ECO is confident that wearing business casual dress for most general career fairs is fine. Here's a link to images of professional business casual attire.}

7. Attend from a distraction-free environment

In addition to your professional attire, you will also want to plan out where you’ll be attending the virtual career fair. A quiet location is ideal—and camera capabilities mean that you’ll want to ensure your location is distraction free for employers.

“Even on a small screen, potential employers can still see plenty of background. Make sure the room you’re in is clean, quiet and well lit. Your expertise should be the focal point of the conversation, not a visible pile of laundry or dirty dishes,” says Brown.

8. Be ready to put yourself out there

At virtual career fairs, it’s all the more important to exert yourself to make connections.

“It’s even easier to be a wallflower at a virtual career fair than a traditional one,” warns Koltz.

Once an employer engages you in a chat, the ball is in your court to introduce yourself and ask questions about the organization and open positions. Attendees must present themselves to employers and feel confident doing so.

9. Use clear, professional business communication

Being a virtual career fair, much of your communication will be done through written interactions in the chat function of the platform. To make a great first impression, you’ll want to demonstrate articulate written communication.

“Grammar matters, and text lingo, emoticons and any slang won’t be appropriate,” says Koltz. “Your professional written communication needs to be on its A game.”

10. Demonstrate strong body language in video chats

Just like in a traditional career fair, you’ll want to present yourself as a confident and competent job seeker. One way that employers pick up on this is through your body language. If you’re on a video chat with a recruiter at the virtual career fair, you’ll want to stay conscious of your body language.

“On camera, it’s even more critical to hold eye contact with the employers you're interacting with,” says Brown. “Speak clearly, and avoid slouching. Keep hand gestures to a minimum so you don’t distract the person you're talking to or block your face from the camera.”

11. Ask for next steps and contact information

When talking to recruiters at the career fair, don’t hesitate to be forward, and offer to send a copy of your resume. You can also ask about the next steps in the process—whether that means getting in touch with Human Resources, filling out a job application or sitting down for a formal interview.

Before parting ways with a recruiter, be sure to take down their contact information. Some employers may have it uploaded and accessible within the virtual career fair platform. If not, ask how you can stay in touch. You’ll need this information for following up after the virtual career fair.

After the virtual career fair

Don’t let your efforts go to waste by neglecting to follow up with connection after the virtual career fair.

12. Reach out the next day with a thank you

Whether it’s an email, phone call or hand-written thank-you note, be sure to reach out to the connections you made at the career fair, thanking them for their time and further expressing your interest.

Because recruiters at career fairs come in contact with many candidates and resumes, you can use this chance to refresh their memory and remind them about why you’re a promising candidate, why you’re interested in the company, and the skills and experiences you bring to the table.

You may also want to send them your resume if you haven’t already—along with your portfolio or work samples if you have any. You can also stay in touch by adding the recruiter on LinkedIn.

Get excited for the future of career fairs

Employers partake in career fairs because they’re looking for job seekers like yourself. Just because they’re held virtually doesn’t make that goal any different.

With this expert advice in hand, you’ll navigate the new waters of virtual career fairs with ease. You never know—it just might get your foot in the door of a field you’re vying for or even land you the job of your dreams.

If you’re ready to put what you’ve learned above to the test, visit the virtual career fair page for more information on our next event. 

Thanks to LInkedIn and 


Elzinga Flash Seminar

Feature | 12/01/2021

Organizing Your Internship, Job, or Graduate School Search

Hello Econ Majors,

With finals just ahead of us, I'm sure you're focused on preparing for your exams and papers. 

Wishing you great success in the next few weeks.

When you return to your internship, job, or graduate school search, consider using the tools below to help keep you organized, which will surely reduce stress! 

This article recommends numerous electronic resources as basic as an MSExcel spreadsheet or MSWord table to track your applications, to websites and apps like JibberJobber that will keep your job search materials in order. Of course, the ECO recommends Handshake, but that is just one tool in your job search toolkit! https://www.thebalancecareers.com/organize-your-job-search-2060710

While the article offers resources to help build your resume and cover letters, UVA has its very own AI tools for you! Check out VMock in Handshake. The three modules we license are:

  1. Resume Review Tool (Scores your resume based on industry/job function and offers suggestions for improvement)
  2. LinkedIn Review Tool (Aspire) (Connects with your LInkedIn profile to score and recommend improvements)
  3. Elevator Pitch Tool (Records your pitch for scoring and recommends improvements)

All three have built-in algorithms to review your materials and help you prepare for conversations with alumni and employers. Please do not use the resume builder tool in VMock because its template is not flexible enough to customize your resume once it is built.

Again, best wishes during this finals period. I look forward to seeing you in the new year!

Jennifer Jones, Economics Career Office


Elzinga Flash Seminar

Feature | 08/12/2016

Negotiating Your Salary

Factors to consider when negotiating your salary.

Elzinga Flash Seminar

Feature | 01/31/2017


"If you’ve heard a lot about “soft skills” lately, it’s at least partly because employers want you to develop them. According to our Global Recruiting Trends study here at LinkedIn, more employers are rolling out “soft skills assessments” to test job candidates on the cognitive and personality qualities you don’t go to school to learn: critical thinking, adaptability, learning agility, communication, etc. By all indications, these factors aretrading at a higher value in 2017 than they have in the past."-Brendan Browne

Click here to read the rest of the article

Elzinga Flash Seminar

Feature | 08/17/2019

9 Tips for Thinking on Your Feet When You're Put on the Spot and Have to Sound Smart

9 Tips for Thinking on Your Feet When You're Put on the Spot and Have to Sound Smart

By: Stacey Lastoe
Source: The Muse

1. Focus on What’s Important

If you’re nervous [about speaking up in an impromptu setting], it probably means you’re overly focused on how other people are going to perceive you. Instead, focus on what’s being discussed and think about three questions: What do I not understand which could be better clarified? What question could I ask that would advance the discussion? What perspective or insight do I have that’s shareable? Don't worry about ‘looking smart’ or making some amazing point or comment. It’s a discussion, not a debate. 

Bruce Eckfeldt

2. Repeat the Question

One of the hardest parts of contributing to a conversation or answering questions in meetings is feeling as though you are under pressure to produce an expected response. One way to overcome this feeling is to not jump into your feedback too quickly. If your response isn’t clear, it can come off as an incomplete thought, or it may fail to address the question. To calm your nerves and come up with a thoughtful answer, simply repeat the question that was asked. This will ensure that you completely understand what’s going on before you attempt to contribute to the conversation. 

Allison Tatios

3. Call Upon Your Knowledge

People usually talk about the things that are of interest to them (professionally or personally), or information most relevant to the organization. Use your knowledge to generate questions that demonstrate your involvement in the conversation. Engaging others by asking questions puts them in a position to share more information, and it takes the stress and pressure off of you. For example, if one of your managers or leaders discusses the company mentoring program, ask her about her best or worst mentoring experiences. You can relay your enthusiasm or interest by restating highlights of what she shared. 

Adrean Turner

4. Take a Deep Breath Before You Do Anything Else

If someone asks you a question that catches you off guard, pause, look thoughtful, and say, ‘That’s a really interesting question. Let me take a minute to think about it.’ This gives you a moment to take a deep breath and collect your thoughts before responding. You’ll be less likely to get flustered. It’s a strategy that works well in interviews, too, if you’re asked a question you don’t have the answer to. 

Heidi Ravis

5. Project Confidence

This all boils down to having confidence in yourself. If you know who you are and feel good about what you’re doing, are regularly and positively engaged in your work, have learned the industry and, in general, have strong interactions with your peers and managers, you should feel comfortable sharing your insights and opinions in any given situation. 

Kristina Leonardi

6. Stop Being Afraid

Get over your fear of looking stupid. If you make a mistake and say something that isn’t immediately met with nods of agreement or approval, that’s OK. Follow your inner voice, and have your own thoughts. Asking a question is an easy way to assert yourself without risking too much if you’re especially nervous about adding to the conversation. But, if that’s the case, and your fear is making you mum, I recommend reading Patricia Ryan Madson’s Improv Wisdom, Don’t Prepare, Just Show Up

Anna Runyan

7. Take a Moment of Silence

Silence can be golden, so don’t be afraid to use it. If you’re unsure of how to answer a question, or are searching for the right words, it’s OK to pause for a bit before speaking. You can say, ‘Let me think,’ or ‘That’s a great question,’ while you piece your thoughts together in your mind. These phrases help buy you time until you’re ready to present the ideas swimming in your brain.

Ryan Kahn

8. Provide Your Point of View

I find it fascinating that when we’re asked for our input on a given topic, we often freeze up, or we feel unqualified to speak. You hold back because you don’t think you have enough expertise. But, you don’t gain expertise by keeping your mouth shut. You gain it by putting your ideas out there, and following what sticks. One of the biggest revelations I’ve helped my students achieve, is understanding that, while you may not feel entitled to share an expert’s opinion, you are always entitled to share your point of view. When you acknowledge that you’re providing your point of view, it takes the pressure off of needing to know everything, and helps you feel at ease sharing your thoughts. 

Rajiv Nathan

9. Avoid Going on the Defense

When we feel caught off guard, it can be easy to get defensive. If, during a meeting or spontaneous conversation, a colleague rattles off a litany of criticisms as to why your proposal won’t work, resist rejecting them by responding with ‘No, but...’ Instead, try the ‘Yes, and...’ strategy, a technique borrowed from improv comedy. By saying, ‘Yes, and... here’s how we overcome those challenges...’ you move the conversation forward. You inspire creative problem-solving, invite possibility, and create an atmosphere for constructive conversation.

Melody Wilding


Need a little help in your job search? Book one of these coaches for a one-on-one strategy session.


Feature | 10/11/2016

ECON Alum: Emily Snow, Class of '16

1. Why did you choose to study economics? 

A month into my first semester, Professor Elzinga gave a lecture in ECON 201 that changed the course of my college trajectory. The topic—rational consumer behavior—was neither inspiring nor profound, but the lesson stuck. I found myself measuring the costs of a good in terms of its next best alternative, ignoring sunk costs when I made a decision, and seeing applications of economics everywhere. Drawn to this “economic way of thinking” during my first months of school, I attended my professors’ office hours, participated in behavioral experiments in the VEcon Lab, and even went water-skiing with Professor Elzinga. As I pursued economics further in subsequent semesters, I was struck by its systematic explanations for the world around me—everything from business strategies to Congressional voting procedures to income inequality. I was fascinated by these questions and the way that economics answered them, and there was no turning back! 

2. What courses/ professors have been particularly influential and why? 

This question is a tough one, because there have been so many! I'm grateful to Mr. Elzinga for his wise counsel, steadfast mentorship, and the way that he constantly challenges me. His ECON 201 class first drew me to the subject, and since then I've had the pleasure of learning from him in his Antitrust seminar and through an independent study on the intersection of economic thought and Christian theology. I'm grateful to Mr. Coppock for his encouragement and natural gift for relating to students. His Public Choice seminar was incredibly interesting and stimulating, and it remains by favorite class to date. I'm grateful to Mr. Holt for his patience, kindness, and willingness to invest in my academic potential. Learning from his expertise in experimental economics has been a true privilege. And the list goes on! I'm grateful to Mr. Olsen for guiding me through my first research project, to Mr. Burton for connecting me wonderful people and opportunities in the Department, to Ms. Turner for her amazing dedication to her students' flourishing, and to many others who have invested in me. 

3. What makes the economics department special? 

As my previous answer demonstrates, the faculty in the economics department have made all the difference to me. They create an atmosphere in which freedom of inquiry flourishes and opportunities abound. During my time in the department, I've particularly enjoyed the opportunity to conduct research. Last year, I completed an independent study in which I used Stata to estimate the efficiency gains of housing vouchers as opposed to public housing. Additionally, I work as a Research Assistant in the VEcon Lab, exploring ways that human behavior either aligns with or deviates from economic theory. In addition to these pursuits, I've also gained immense value from the opportunity to serve as a Teaching Assistant in introductory economics courses. Teaching is a great responsibility and privilege, and helping my students grasp the discipline’s most fundamental principles reminds me of why I fell in love with economics in the first place.

4. How did you spend your summer between third and fourth year? (This language has been changed. Former question asked “How did you spend last summer?” Or, we may mention in the heading that these responses were collected while you were a student and now you are an Associate with BCG.)

I had a fantastic summer interning for BCG in their DC office. My role as a Summer Associate involved collaborating with my case team to strategically simplify the organizational structure of a large tech firm. Day to day, I spent good deal of my time building models on Excel, creating Powerpoint decks for client presentations, and performing data analysis with my team. At the most basic level, my task was to solve problems, and both the content of the work and the atmosphere of the office made my job both stimulating and sustainable. I have no doubt that the experiences the Economics Department has provided me differentiated me as a job candidate, and Jen Jones and the ECO office were enormously valuable to me as I navigated the job recruitment process. Furthermore, once I began my internship, it became abundantly clear that the critical thinking that I learn through my economics coursework would help me succeed in the Associate role. I am looking forward to returning to BCG as a full-time Associate next year. 

5. What is the most interesting thing you've done in the Department?

Serving as one of the first undergraduate Teaching Assistant for introductory economics courses has been and continues to be an incredible privilege and learning opportunity. Standing in front of a classroom twice each week, I’ve learned to present economics concepts in creative ways. I’ve learned to establish credibility by coming prepared for class and by speaking with confidence. I’ve learned to establish approachability by adding lighthearted elements to my lessons and being transparent about any mistakes I make. Working one-on-one with my students, I’ve learned the joys of helping others succeed. I’ve learned to help my students work out practice problems themselves, rather than just listen to me explain them. I’ve learned to exhibit patience and encouragement in the face of my students’ frustration and disappointment, particularly after midterms. 

As a returning TA this year, my goal is been to use these lessons to both improve upon my teaching and to be a leader among new undergraduate TAs. I seek to be a role model by putting my students’ needs above my own. Whether it means putting extra effort into planning interactive lessons, sacrificing time to meet outside of my office hours, or simply demonstrating to my students how much I care about their success, my role as a Teaching Assistant continues to be my most meaningful University involvement. 

Feature | 08/01/2022

Daniel Harper presents at the Economics Science Association Word Meeting

Daniel Harper, a fifth-year student, presented his paper “Borrowing in A Crisis: An Experimental Study of Asset-Backed Borrowing in a Financial Downturn,” at the Economic Science Association Word Meetings in Boston/Cambridge, MA.  The paper investigates the effects of asset-backed borrowing and investor panic on asset prices and market efficiency in an economic downturn.

Elzinga Flash Seminar

Feature | 04/19/2022

Summer Intern Candidates Facing Bidding Wars

In-demand college students seeking summer internships are reneging on offers as companies swoop in to offer better deals. Host J.R. Whalen is joined by Georgia Tech senior Najaah Chambliss, who walked away from an internship, and WSJ reporter Lindsay Ellis, who discusses the trend and how companies are responding.

If you are considering reneging on an internship or job offer, please connect with Jen Jones at jlh7b@virginia.edu.

Listen to the recording here with a WSJ subscription.

This transcript was prepared by a transcription service. This version may not be in its final form and may be updated.

J.R. Whalen: Here's Your Money Briefing for Friday, March 4th. I'm J.R. Whalen for The Wall Street Journal. We've told you how the pandemic helped create a job seekers market with millions of workers leaving their jobs for better pay and companies struggling to fill open slots. But that's also happening among students who are trying to land summer internships. Competition for interns has gotten so fierce that some who've gotten and accepted offers are reneging on them to take a better deal elsewhere.

Lindsay Ellis: Just like a lot of job seekers, there is demand for people to come in the door. Companies look at their summer internship programs and they're not just thinking about that summer. They're thinking, "Who can we identify among this cohort of interns that a year from now we're going to want to bring back or we want to hire full-time after the program."

J.R. Whalen: On today's show, we'll discuss the growing leverage students have in the competitive world of summer internships with our reporter, Lindsay Ellis. Plus we'll hear from one student who reneged at an intern ship offer and see how it turned out. That's after the break. For college students, an offer for a summer internship can mean getting their foot in the door and launching a career track. But amid the tight labor market, more students are walking away from offers they've already accepted to take an even better one. In a moment, we'll hear from WSJ reporter Lindsay Ellis about this growing trend and the competition for entry level talent. But first let's bring in one of those in-demand interns for a firsthand account. I'm joined now by (Naja Shambliss). She's 21 and a senior at Georgia Tech University majoring in computer science. Last fall, she began applying for internships for this coming summer. Hey Naja, thanks for being here.

Naja Shambliss: I'm glad to be here.

J.R. Whalen: So Naja, back in October you landed a summer internship. Tell us about how that went.

Naja Shambliss: Yeah, so I was applying for internships and I had found this opportunity on, I believe LinkedIn. It was either LinkedIn or Handshake I believe. And so, yeah, I went ahead and applied and I figured I had a pretty good chance of getting this internship because I had previously interned with a defense company and so I thought getting this internship from this other defense company would be not too bad. And I also wanted to intern somewhere else other than this previous company, which is why I was applying for other companies. And so, yeah, I applied and it took a little while to get back to me, but I ended up interviewing with them once and then I heard back from them about a month later, I believe, saying that I received an offer.

J.R. Whalen: All right. But then earlier of this year, your plans changed. What happened there?

Naja Shambliss: Yeah. So at the end of November, my recruiter reached out to me on LinkedIn also asking me to apply for a Microsoft internship and I had already accepted the defense internship, but I was like, it's Microsoft, I've applied for them before. I haven't been accepted previously, so this would just be an extra step for practice for when I apply again for the next recruiting season. So I filled out the application she sent me and then I went through the first round of interviews, which wasn't too bad, thank God. And then I got pushed to the final round and I received an offer after that.

J.R. Whalen: Oh, so what did Microsoft offer you?

Naja Shambliss: I'm not able to disclose the numbers, but let's say it was definitely double what the defense industry was offering me. And then they were also giving me a relocation, stipend and a stipend to help with my moving expenses and stuff like that. So it was a pretty great deal.

J.R. Whalen: So you eventually had to go tell the defense company that you had accepted a new opportunity. How'd that conversation go?

Naja Shambliss: So it's actually pretty funny. I sent out an email to, I believe she was my onboarding HR person and stating that I do apologize for having to do this to you guys so late in the game, but unfortunately I have to renege my offer, and I actually did not get a response for them. I had sent them an email and I never received an email back, but I did look at my portal and it had said that I was no longer being considered for the position. So I don't think they received that information in the best way, but yes, that's what happened.

J.R. Whalen: So when you first got the word from the recruiter that there was a Microsoft internship out there to try to go after, how did you feel about that process at that stage? I imagine you had firmed up the defense company internship and had signed some papers, right?

Naja Shambliss: Yeah. I thought this opportunity was different maybe because I had never had a recruiter directly from a company DM me, or specifically for Microsoft, I have never had a Microsoft recruiter DM me on LinkedIn asking me to apply for position. So I kind of had a good feeling about this process and that's kind of what made me be like, "Okay, even though I've already accepted this offer, this might turn out differently, so let's try it."

J.R. Whalen: All right. That's Naja Shambliss, a senior at Georgia Tech University with us. Naja, thank you so much for taking the time to chat.

Naja Shambliss: Thank you for having me. This is my first podcast experience, so I'm very grateful. Thank you so much for this opportunity.

J.R. Whalen: Oh, we really appreciate it. Thanks a lot.

Naja Shambliss: No problem.

J.R. Whalen: So what's driving this cutthroat competition for interns and what are companies doing to keep potential interns interested? For more on that, I'm joined by WSJ reporter, Lindsay Ellis. She's been looking into it. Lindsay, thanks so much for being here.

Lindsay Ellis: Thank you so much for having me.

J.R. Whalen: So Lindsay, these bidding wars for interns like we just heard with Naja, is that something new?

Lindsay Ellis: So interns, especially in demand fields like computer science, engineering and the like, they've always had some competitive offers, but the level of competition that I heard from interns seemed just really striking. Campuses and companies are saying that they're seeing competition over interns in a way that feels different than prior years, especially the last two years, the first with the pandemic really sinking in and last year with everything in a much different hiring market than we are right now.

J.R. Whalen: So why do interns suddenly have this kind of leverage in the job market?

Lindsay Ellis: Just like a lot of job seekers, there is demand for people to come in the door. And I think that for interns emerges in a couple of ways, the first is, companies really want applicants and they want qualified applicants. And that inherently gives the people who are applying, who have strong resumes, who have the skills that they're looking for an edge. I think the other reason is companies look at their summer internship programs and they're not just thinking about that summer. They're thinking, "Who can we identify among this cohort of interns that a year from now we're going to want to bring back or we want to hire full time after the program." And so this is sort of a key pool for companies to look at their entry level workforce. And so there is more demand in hiring the right people when this could be my pipeline six months from now, a year from now.

J.R. Whalen: Is there ever any kind of a penalty if a student backs out of an internship that they've already accepted?

Lindsay Ellis: It can vary from campus to campus, but yes. Cornell's business school, if you're an MBA student and you accept an offer for the summer and then you go out and interview and accept a different one and back out of that first one, they say that they reserve the right to fine you up to $2,500.

J.R. Whalen: Wow. I mean, for a college student, that's a lot of money.

Lindsay Ellis: It is, yes. And for those two, those were specifically for business school students, so perhaps a little later in their career. But these are people that don't necessarily have income coming in every month and yet still might be on the hook. There are other penalties that are also significant. At the University of California Berkeley's business school, one of the possible sanctions is a 16 hour service project. So that can be a significant amount of money certainly and time if you're caught backing out from this.

J.R. Whalen: But a student might consider switching to a different internship that could better jumpstart their career, right? But is there a danger of them burning their bridges behind them?

Lindsay Ellis: Colleges say that there is. I mean, they are quick to remind students that it's a small world and a small job market in a lot of ways. Recruiters move from company to company. Someone who you interact with when you're 22, you might encounter in a totally different field a few years down the line. They also sort of put in place their own regulations that could hamper a student's trajectory as they continue through their education. Some schools at the undergraduate level will restrict the use of a platform called Handshake where a lot of jobs are listed for students who are caught backing out. I think students who I talked to who have considered this or who have done this look at the name on the resume, they look at the salary that they could be bringing in and importantly, they look at the experience that they think that they're going to get at these preferred internship programs. And in a lot of cases, that's a very strong counterweight to a more nebulous idea of possible ramifications. There's another side to that coin as well, which is the relationship between the college and the company, and many campus career offices are really cognizant of that relationship and don't want to do anything to stress it or damage it. Their fear is that if a number of students back out from opportunities that they've already accepted, might that influence whether a company wants to come back next semester or next year and knock on their door and recruit future classes. And so one aspect of could this be hurtful, is thinking about what is the next student who comes around, what's going to be their experience, and colleges really have that front of mind.

J.R. Whalen: Now, there's usually several months between the time somebody lands an internship and when they actually start. So what are companies doing to prevent people from backing out?

Lindsay Ellis: There usually are several months between these dates and one thing that really surprised me in reporting this is that in some cases there are many more months than I had anticipated. People were telling me that they were interviewing for these summer internships while they were doing a different summer internship. So companies need to keep students warm is what they say, make sure that they're front of mind for these candidates that they've worked hard to recruit. Liberty Mutual told me about their keep in touch campaign, including interns in get togethers that are held virtually, some coffee chats and the like to keep them engaged with what's going on. One logistics company that I talked to mentioned sending holiday e-cards to the students who had accepted. So there are different tactics, some with video engagement and when possible in-person engagement, but others just really leaning into the messaging.

J.R. Whalen: And so how are the companies responding to this trend of interns backing out of offers and how are they thinking about their internship programs more broadly to keep people interested?

Lindsay Ellis: So some of them are looking at pay benchmarks and making sure that this very basic aspect of it, this critical aspect of it is competitive of with other organizations and external benchmarks. Some of them begrudge the trend and you kind of throw your hands up in the air and it's a little bit of a "kids these days" reaction. But the thing that I think most stood out to me on this was a real focus on what can we do as an organization to prepare for the summer, just kind of accepting that this might take place. So a few companies, including General Mills told me and have mentioned that they plan to overhire, basically extending a few more offers than they typical would and hoping that a few more candidates than they want to accept accept, expecting that a few of them are maybe going to back out between now and the summer. And I think they're also thinking about how they recruit and how they build relationships with students. One common refrain I heard from recruiters was, "In this virtual environment maybe students feel less of a strong connection with us as a company and with the recruiters and the team overall. How can we build that up and keep them feeling close?" And so that sort of speaks to some of the strategies, the keeping in touch efforts and the like.

J.R. Whalen: All right. That's Wall Street Journal reporter, Lindsay Ellis with us. Lindsay, thanks so much for being with us.

Lindsay Ellis: Thank you for having me.

J.R. Whalen: And that's Your Money Briefing. I'm J.R. Whalen for The Wall Street Journal.

Feature | 01/31/2022

Sngidha Das presents at SEA

Snigdha Das presented her paper, "Corruption and the Golden Goose Effect in the Context of an Ink Bomb Task Experiment," which studies corrupt behavior across a dynamic setting. Snigdha presented the experimental design of the theoretical model along with some preliminary data observations gathered from pilot sessions in Professor Charles Holt's undergraduate class.

Elzinga Flash Seminar

Feature | 05/17/2016


"Managers and employees don’t always see eye to eye. Fast Companyuncovered a wide gap in the way each group thinks about business cultureand their radically different ideas about work-life balance."-Lydia Dishman

Click here to read the rest of the article

Elzinga Flash Seminar

Feature | 06/07/2018

How to Answer "The Difficult Team Member" Question

One of the more common behavioral interview questions is “Tell me about a time you had a conflict with a coworker and how you dealt with it.” A similar question is “Tell me about a time you were on a team and team member wasn’t pulling his or her weight and how you addressed the situation.” While these questions are slightly different, they’re both looking for the same thing: how you work in teams and how you deal with conflict. 

Elzinga Flash Seminar

Feature | 01/26/2017

ECO Newsletter 1.26.17

Return from Winter Break Edition




Elzinga Flash Seminar

Feature | 03/15/2019

Alumni Spotlight: Mike Shebat

Elzinga Flash Seminar

Feature | 10/30/2018

Identify Your Network: Who do you Know?

Identify your Network: Whom do you Know?

Miriam Salpeter

A common complaint job seekers make is, “I don’t have a network!” It’s very frustrating to realize job search networking is the best way to land an opportunity but to believe that avenue isn’t open to you. Luckily, you do have a network! In fact, anyone who knows one person has a network, and it’s likely your acquaintances, friends, and family members number many more than one. In other words, it’s just a matter of learning how to identify people most interested in your expertise.

Identify Your Network

Social Media

Do you use Facebook? Are you connected to anyone on that social network? Your “friends” there, whether you really like them or not, are part of your professional network. (Even if you’ve never exchanged a word you’d consider “professional” with any of them.)

Do you use other networks, such as Instagram, Pinterest, or SnapChat? Believe it or not, people whose photos you comment on or whose pins you share are also part of your network.

You don’t need to have 500+ LinkedIn contacts to call yourself networked. However, you do need to learn how to tap into these networks of people to access professionally useful information. Ideally, you’ll want to identify any of the people in these networks who may also leverage any of the more typically accessed professional networks, such as LinkedIn, and then connect with them there.

People You Know

Maybe you don’t use social media (although it’s nearly a job-search necessity these days). “Ah ha,” you’re thinking, “I really don't have a network.” Perhaps, if you’ve never taken a class, had a job or internship, or left your house, you may make an argument that you don't have a network. However, most readers won’t accurately fit into those parameters. You have the potential to grow your network every time you leave your home. Do you grocery shop? Attend sporting events? Go to family dinners? Belong to a walking group in your neighborhood? All of these places provide great opportunities to expand your professional network.

Do you see a pattern here? Your professional network doesn’t come with special stickers or labels that say “job networking.” Your network encompasses everyone you know, and everyone those people know, too. If you really want to be fancy, it technically includes at least one more degree of separation, which would capture everyone who is a friend or acquaintance of those friends.

Start thinking about the strength of your professional network using this list:

  • Your family members and friends. (They don’t need to have jobs to join your network.)
  • Everyone you’ve ever worked with, including volunteer jobs.
  • People who attended school with you. Teachers count, too. This includes elementary school through college and grad school. Don’t forget to include people you met at professional development classes or fitness and exercise classes.
  • People you know from religious groups. If you go to religious services, everyone you meet there can be part of your network.
  • People you meet in your community or neighborhood, including at the dog park, kids’ soccer games, or the local street festival.
  • Anyone you know via your children’s activities.
  • People you meet while practicing your hobby, whether it is gardening, golfing, or skydiving. Anyone you meet can be part of your network.
  • Military contacts.
  • Your hairdresser or barber, the bartender at the local watering hole, and your dry cleaner are all in your network. Professionals who interact with a lot of people on a daily basis make great networking contacts. In addition, any one in a profession involving dealing with other professionals, such as accountants, lawyers, and business coaches make good contacts. They know a lot of people, and probably have someone in their network to connect with you.

If you don’t believe your extended network can help you get a job, these stories may change your mind.

Bettina Smalley recalled how she landed her first job out of college: “Divine intervention got me my first job at Scientific-Atlanta many moons ago. The pastor of my little Lutheran church was friends with a recruiter who needed to fill a sales position ‘at some big company’ with someone who spoke German. My pastor called me at 10 p.m. one night to tell me about it. By the end of the week, I had the job. If you're referred by a man of God, I guess they assume your references are good!”

This is a perfect example of the “you never know” factor when it comes to a job search. Bettina’s pastor knew something personal about her that also related to her professional potential: she speaks German. Are people in your network clued into your special skills and goals? One way to make sure they are in the loop about your plans and skills is to share information related to your professional life on more personal networks, such as Facebook. Do your grade school or high school friends and contacts know you’ve returned to school to study human resources, or that you just obtained certification as a massage therapist? If not, it’s a good idea to make sure they do. Either spread the word in person or via online networks to ensure you tap your network efficiently.

Andrea Clement, a PR and media professional in the medical recruiting industry,

found her current job after running into a former boss at Nordstrom on Christmas Eve. She explained, “We both scrambled to do last-minute holiday shopping. At the time I was happily employed and he had just started his own firm. He asked if I was interested and I said that I really loved my job so I wasn't sure, which was true. After the holidays, my then boss resigned, and she was my favorite aspect of that job. That February, I became the first employee of the start-up firm working for the former boss I'd seen in Nordstrom! That was 2007. I'm still here and now we have 80+ associates!”

While not every networking success story begins with a random meeting, if you ask people you know, you may be surprised to find out how many found their jobs, not just via networking, but through very random networking circumstances. The lesson in this case is that you never know when you’ll run into someone who can be influential to your career. Keep this in mind if you’re in full-on networking mode. For example, be sure you go out dressed to meet professional contacts. This doesn’t mean donning a three-piece suit to go to the bank, but consider your networking goals when you’re out and about and tweak your appearance to ensure you are comfortable introducing yourself to people no matter the circumstances.

Levels of Networks

Your network has multiple levels. Your immediate network includes the people you know directly, either in person or via social networks. You also can access the people they know as part of your extended network. In other words, your brother’s boss, your neighbor’s professor, or your college friend’s accountant, are all in your network. Don’t forget: each network links you to another network of potentially untapped contacts.

You never know when “someone will know someone.” Corey-Jan Albert, a writer and marketing consultant, shared a great networking connection story about her son, Cameron, a recent college graduate seeking a journalism position: “About a week ago, he mentioned a position he applied for. I asked him if he knew who he'd be working for there, and he said he did. I told him to check the guy's LinkedIn and see what he could find. He called me back and said, ‘YOU know someone who knows him! I can't see who that is since I'm two degrees of contact removed, but you can.’ It turns out the common connection was Cameron's 5th grade soccer coach—now living in NY, working at Reuters. Cameron reached out to him. The former soccer coach was thrilled to hear from him, and not only gave him some Intel on the situation at hand; he also offered to link him up with the editor at Reuters in charge of freelance assignments. Double win!”

This story proves a few important lessons about networking. You may find the best networking contacts are people who would never have considered members of your official network. (Most college graduates don’t think their 5th-grade soccer coach will be a key player in their job search efforts. It’s also a good reminder to tap into family member networks.) Especially if you believe your network is small, connect with relatives on LinkedIn. It’s perfectly acceptable (and expected) to “link in” with your parents, grandparents, and their friends. If Cameron hadn’t been linked to his mom, he would not have realized this terrific contact. Unexpected results may happen from networking. In this case, Cameron accessed a freelance contact, even though he is seeking a traditional, full-time job. You never know what surprises await when you explore your networking potential.

Miriam Salpeter is owner and founder of Keppie Careers (http://www.keppiecareers.com/), a coaching and consulting firm helping job seekers and entrepreneurs leverage social media and other tools to achieve their goals. She has appeared on CNN, and  major media outlets, including The Wall Street JournalThe New York TimesForbes and others have quoted her advice. In addition to her own blog, Miriam writes for U.S. News & World Report and for AolJobs.com. She is the author of the books, Social Networking for Career SuccessSocial Networking for Business Success: How to Turn Your Interests into Income, and  100 Conversations for Career Success. Named to CNN’s list of “top 10 job tweeters you should be following” and a “top 5” influencer on Twitter for job seekers by Mashable.com. Miriam also had her blog selected as a top career resource by Forbes. A vice president for a Wall Street firm prior to earning a master’s degree from Columbia University, Miriam ran the Career Action Center at the Rollins School of Public Health of Emory University before launching her own business.

Elzinga Flash Seminar

Feature | 10/18/2021

ECO Article: How to Attend a Virtual Career Fair

By: Victorio Duran III at Firsthand

It isn’t easy to stand out at in-person job fairs, and leaving a lasting impression with employers at virtual job fairs can be just as challenging. However, if you follow the eight tips below, you’ll have no difficulty making meaningful professional connections and differentiating yourself from other candidates.

1. Update your profile and resume

Your resume and professional profiles, especially your LinkedIn profile, need to be up to date. Ensure that your resume is as comprehensive as possible. Don’t skimp on information—and certainly make sure to include key words and quantifiable achievements. Also, make sure your polished, error-free resume is available in both PDF and Word files, and available on your desktop so you can access it and upload it easily. All of this is important during fairs because employers use the information on your resume and profile to see if you match their requirements.

2. Do your research

For employers you’re interested in, go the extra mile while researching them. Find out about the opportunities they offer and their cultures. This allows you to better determine if they might be good fits for you, and to customize your resume and profile to their requirements. In addition, doing your research shows recruiters at the career fair that you did your homework and are interested in working for them. The more you know about a company’s products, employee culture, social media presence, standing in the market, etc., the more topics you’ll have to talk about—and the more likely you are to make a lasting impression.

3. Prepare to ask questions       

Answering questions is so passé. To stand out from the competition, you need to ask questions—and you have every right to do so. Show off the research you’ve done and prepare a list of questions for recruiters. You might ask about company culture, retention rate, growth plans, how a company is managing in these difficult times, and how a company’s work environment has changed in the wake of Covid-19. Also, with everyone working from home, you might have legitimate concerns about starting a job remotely. So, ask about the communication tools the company uses to facilitate work from home, and whether they prefer Glip, Discord, or another collaboration software app.

4. Plan your day

You don’t want your lack of planning and organization getting in the way of making strong connections at virtual fairs. So, if you have trouble getting organized, there are many online productivity tools that can help. It also helps if you proceed step by step through each virtual fair. So, decide head of time which virtual stands you’d like to stop at, and decide the questions you’ll be asking at each stop. In addition, familiarize yourself with the platform hosting the fair so you know how to go about it.

It’s extremely important to spend your time efficiently. You want to attend the career clinics and webinars but also make time for meeting with recruiters on a one-to-one basis. You don’t want to have all the information and knowledge on how to land a job but not get enough time to talk to the people actually offering one.

5. Draft an elevator pitch

It’s important to prepare an elevator pitch you can give to recruiters you meet at fairs. Time is of the essence, as there are typically hundreds of other candidates vying for recruiters’ attention. Making an impression with few words isn’t something most people can do on the spot and off the top of their heads. So, ahead of each fair, draft an elevator pitch thoughtfully, considering how you’ll approach each employer and what would you’d like to say.

It’s probable that instead of talking, you’ll have to text your pitch, so have your pitch ready to be copied and pasted. A little knowledge of the principles of copywriting wouldn’t go amiss to make an immediate impression and be able to sell yourself. And think short and sharp—briefly outline your academic and work background, and mention why you’d like to be part of an employer’s team.

6. Be professional

Even when you’re attending a virtual fair, you should dress to impress. Recruiters will be able see you. Be as sharply dressed as you would for an in-person interview. This shows seriousness and will create a great first impression. Avoid clothing with patterns, and keep your background plain, simple, and clutter-free.  

Of course, don’t be late for the fair. Show up on time so you have a better chance of doing everything you want to do during the fair. If you’ve set prior appointments for personal meetings with recruiters, be there before they are. Doing so will make you come off as eager, well prepared, and someone who respects others’ busy schedules.

In addition, be professional in all your communication. A joke or two can be acceptable during conversations to lighten the mood, but too many jokes can make you seem not very serious and create the wrong impression. While it’s good to have things to talk about, limit your conversation to the company, the job, and the matter at hand.

7. Be real

To come off as your authentic self, especially on a virtual platform, isn’t easy. However, the best advice is to be yourself. Let your personality shine through, and don’t let your nerves get in the way. There’s no need to be nervous or worried that one single job fair will make or break your career—there will be many other fairs. Also, remember that genuine candidates stand out—they’re the recruiters will remember.

So, if you’re authentic as possible while also acting confidently and professionally, you’ll create a great first impression. Give honest answers to questions, relating answers to your personal life and struggles to give employers a quick idea of who you are. Of course, be cool-headed at all times, especially in response to tricky interview questions you didn’t anticipate. 

8. Close thoughtfully

If you want to make a truly lasting impression, you need to connect with employers after career fairs. So, make sure you ask for their contact information during the fair, and send them a formal email immediately afterward. You could also send them a LinkedIn request with a personalized message, thanking them for their time and summarizing the conversation you had. Mention the position you’re interested in, and remind them again why you’re a good fit. Keep it short, and ask to be informed of the next steps in the hiring process.


Feature | 01/18/2022

“Phillip Jefferson, UVa PhD (1990), nominated to serve on the Federal Reserve Board.

Elzinga Flash Seminar

Feature | 04/20/2023

4 Ways to Finish the Semester Strong

Article written by Joel Minden for Psychology Today.

Overwhelmed by a stressful semester and too much work? Wondering how you’re going to make it through the last few weeks before finals? Here are four ways to finish the semester strong:

1) Give yourself a good reason. I’m not going to suggest to you that it’s time to get pumped up about all the work you have ahead of you. Let’s be real. But if you’re an expert at telling yourself why you shouldn’t do your work, maybe now’s a good time to change the script. Start by paying attention to what goes through your mind when you consider doing schoolwork. Some examples:

  • I’d rather do something else.
  • It’s so boring.
  • I don’t know where to start.
  • I don’t understand the material.

Some ideas for more useful self-talk messages:

  • If I get some studying done now, I won’t worry about it when I do something fun later.
  • Boring work isn’t going to get more interesting later, so I should get started and take short breaks when it’s hard to focus.
  • If I open the textbook, look through my notes, and read the assignment guidelines, at least it’s a step in the right direction. Once I get going, it’ll get easier.
  • I’ll understand the material better if I search for main ideas first and focus on the details later.

Catch the negative thoughts when they occur and replace them with new beliefs. With practice, you'll have more useful beliefs without having to implement them intentionally.

2) Show anxiety who’s boss. If you’re avoiding schoolwork, worrying about it, and feeling tense because of it, staying calm and productive will be tough. Instead of doing things that escalate anxiety, do the opposite.

  • To address avoidance, do at least a little bit of work consistently. Schedule 30 minutes if you think that’s all you can handle. You might surprise yourself and do much more. Or, if you choose to stop and do another 30 minutes later, you’re less likely to criticize yourself for doing less.
  • Being productive early and often beats last-minute cramming for worrying less. If worrying continues, write down your concerns and the steps you need to take to address them. This will give your mind a break so you can focus on your work instead of the ideas that make you anxious. You can always go back to your notes later to review your worries and their solutions.
  • If you’re struggling with physical tension, take a break for deep breathing, yoga, cardio, meditation, a massage, or a warm bath.

3) Get a study buddy. Corny word choice aside, working with a classmate or a friend has many benefits. Scheduling time to study with another person works because

  • You’re less likely to skip out on work if it means breaking a commitment to a friend.
  • Discussing course concepts with someone else can enhance your retention of the material.
  • Having someone to chat with during breaks makes the work seem less tedious.
  • Working with a partner is a good opportunity to get out of the house and away from distractions that might pull you away from studying.
  • Even if you’re working on different things, having company might boost your intrinsic motivation to get things done.

4) Use problem-focused coping strategies. When things get stressful, activities that give you a short-term break might seem like the answer. Emotion-focused coping strategies can make you feel better for a few hours, which is why it’s so easy to turn to things like exercise, napping, watching TV, creative work, visiting friends, eating junk food, or drinking beer (of course, some of these are better choices than others). But when you have papers and projects to complete and final exams looming, the work needs to get done at some point. Don't forget to use problem-focused coping strategies to stay on track:

  • Look at your syllabus.
  • Figure out what needs to get done and how long it will take.
  • Schedule time to work and put it in your smartphone or other electronic calendar. Set email or pop-up reminders.
  • Do you have important or challenging things to do that you're likely to avoid? Can you work on those things first?
  • Identify obstacles. What might get in the way of achieving your goals? What can you do about it?
  • Reach out to your instructors. Let them know you’d like to finish strong and that you’d appreciate their advice. Take advantage of office hours to get their help.

Feature | 05/01/2020

Devaki Ghose Wins Graduate Student Award at EIIT Conference

In October 2019, Devaki Ghose won the Graduate Student Award at the 2019 Empirical Investigations in International Trade Conference for her paper "Trade, Internal Migration, and Human Capital: Who Gains from India's IT Boom?" A link to past student prize winners can be found here, https://www.freit.org/EIIT/2019/GradComp.php .

Elzinga Flash Seminar

Feature | 08/12/2016


Check out MacroDigest.com, a new tool created by students from the London School of Economics to follow systemically important conversations and events. Students felt overwhelmed when trying to access the topics, debates, and current events in the global economy due to the thousands of voices in the blogosphere and news continuously posting and updating. Thus, the creation of MacroDigest. Macrodigest clusters information and analysis on everything moving the global economy.  Students will get a lot out of the home page because it provides a simple yet comprehensive look on both breaking and trending systemically important news while showcasing more nuanced debates happening within the economics world.
See "Job Search Resources for Economics Majors" for a more complete list of helpful sources, institutes, and databases.

Feature | 05/23/2022

Yooseon Hwang presents at European UEA Conference

In April 2022, fifth-year student Yooseon Hwang presented her paper,"The Welfare Effects of Congestion Pricing," at the European Urban Economics Association Conference in London. The paper estimates the effects of congestion pricing on welfare by developing a quantitative spatial model with endogenous commuting costs.

Feature | 07/19/2019

Sarah Turner and PhD Candidate Emily Cook Publish Article on Effects of Universal College Testing

The study was referenced on June 25th in The Washington Post, Education Week, and The Atlanta Journal-Constitution; the abstract can be accessed using the following link: https://www.aera.net/Newsroom/Missed-Exams-and-Lost-Opportunities-Who-Could-Gain-from-Expanded-College-Admission-Testing

Elzinga Flash Seminar

Feature | 06/28/2023

New Grads Have No Idea How to Behave in the Office - Help is on the Way!

From The Wall Street Journal, 6/16/23

Recent graduates might be great at accounting or coding, but they need a little help when it comes to dinner parties and dress codes. 

Many members of the class of 2023 were freshmen in college in the spring of 2020, when campuses shuttered due to the Covid-19 pandemic. They spent the rest of their college years partially in virtual mode with hybrid internships and virtual classes. Students didn’t learn some of the so-called soft skills they might have in the past by osmosis on the job, from mentors and by practicing on campus. 

To address deficiencies in everything from elevator chitchat to presentation skills, companies, universities and recruiters are coming up with ways to train new hires and give them clear advice. They are eating it up.

Recent graduate Joslynn Odom had her first hybrid internship after her junior year and found working in person to be draining thanks to wearing professional attire and staying energetic consistently. It made her realize that she needed to sharpen her communication and networking skills. 

Programming arranged by her college, Miami University in Ohio, has since helped. Just before graduation she attended an etiquette dinner where she learned to follow the lead of more senior leaders over dinner: Eat at their pace, discuss neutral topics and avoid personal questions. When buttering bread, it is best to put a slab on one’s own bread plate before applying it to a roll, and when cutting food, holding the fork hump-side up is best, she said. 

“Knowing that, I feel more confident,” she said.

William Lopez-Gudiel, 23 years old, interned last year for Warner Bros. Discovery and found a presentation on office dynamics especially helpful. It covered dress codes, navigating interpersonal relationships and what working in person is like, he said.

The company said it has offered similar guidance in the past. Some of it felt like common sense to Lopez-Gudiel, who graduated in December from George Mason University and is a self-described extrovert. 

But Lopez-Gudiel ultimately appreciated the information, realizing that the pandemic may have limited what soft skills he might have learned at past work experiences. He will be working at the company full time as a software developer.

Many soon-to-be graduates are itching to get rid of Zoom and work face-to-face with co-workers where their interpersonal skills will be quickly tested. In an April survey of about 700 Class of 2023 graduates from the virtual student-health company TimelyCare, 53% said they wanted a fully in-person work environment, while 21% said they wanted to be fully remote. 

New KPMG hires at the company’s training facility in Orlando, Fla., where KPMG teaches presentation skills, the art of talking in person and how to resolve conflict in teams. PHOTO: KPMG

Graduates’ disrupted college experience might mean they struggle with the basics reading colleagues’ cues or navigating a meeting, said Heidi Brooks, a senior lecturer in organizational behavior at Yale University’s School of Management. In class, when students didn’t have cameras on, that was harder to determine.

New hires will need to learn “those nuances of, how do you actually create enough connection, visibility, ability to maneuver,” she said. 

The missing piece for young professionals who have graduated since 2020, in fact, has been no real proximity to mentorship and leadership, recruiters say. 

“This is so much more important today,” said Sandy Torchia, vice chair of talent and culture at KPMG, whose full-time hires this summer and fall will go to the firm’s training facility in Florida where they’ll get new presentation training. 

They’ll practice scenarios involving conflict within teams, plus the basics of talking in person—as simple as how to introduce yourself to a client or colleague. Key tips include maintaining eye contact, taking pauses and avoiding jargon. It is also best to listen carefully to others, and to adjust your introduction to highlight pieces of your background that will be most interesting to them. 

The company has found that some young professionals are stiff, talk too fast, or rely too much on filler words like “um,” as they presented. Some of the employees said they wanted to feel more comfortable, too. 

Allan Rubio, 21 years old was a freshman at Dartmouth College in the spring of 2020. Online classes continued all through his sophomore year, which Rubio completed from his family’s home in Bangkok. Course sessions stretched to 11 p.m. or sometimes 2 a.m. local time, he said. 

Professors were far more flexible on deadlines during the pandemic, amenable to extensions if students asked, he said. When Rubio had an in-person internship last summer, he realized his manager, team or client depended on him meeting deadlines. 


KPMG trainings with early-career workers at the firm’s training facility in Orlando, Fla. PHOTO: KPMG

Presentation skills are also something Rubio needs to learn better, he said. He had presented virtually in academic classes, and often kept a few thoughts and scripted language in a Notes file on screen—or on a separate device nearby. Once on a video call, he said, he blamed an internet delay while he stopped talking midsentence and collected his thoughts. 

None of those aids could help him through presenting in-person on stage at a hackathon on campus. It was more difficult than he expected, he said. 

Since then Rubio, who graduated this month, has rehearsed extensively before live presentations. He lays out key points and slims a longer script into bullet points before memorizing key areas. 

Though new hires are digital natives, today’s graduates’ professional email skills need improvement, said Jialan Wang, an assistant professor of finance at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. 

Many won’t acknowledge important messages but will expect a response from professors immediately, even over holidays, she said.

Michigan State University’s business-school career center has urged companies to be explicit about what students should expect at work, to over-communicate details about how a first day will play out, what to wear and what people typically do for lunch.

Marla McGraw is the director of career management at Michigan State University’s business school, which requires students to take classes on soft skills.  

The school last year began requiring many business students to take classes on soft skills in the workplace, after observing that students are more awkward and unsure when they network than they used to be, said Marla McGraw, director of career management.

The program goes step by step through an in-person networking conversation. In one handout, the center instructs students to introduce themselves by their first and last name. “STOP! Let them tell you their name,” it reads. 

Later it urges the students to share that they are interested in hearing about opportunities at the company and share that they follow the company closely, are familiar with its products or services or know someone who interned there, among other options. 

“STOP! Pause for only a few seconds to see if they offer any questions or input on your above comments. They may ask you for your resume.”  

Students should keep an eye out for signs that a person is trying to end a conversation, McGraw added. Someone might begin to gather their things, or look around the room, signaling they need to talk to another person. Often, one can facilitate a smooth exit by saying, “Well, thanks so much. It’s been a pleasure.” 

Scott Redfearn, executive vice president of global human resources at Protiviti, urges new graduates to introduce themselves around the office, stick out their hands and smile. PHOTO: PROTIVITI

Professional-services firms PricewaterhouseCoopers and Protiviti have had to tell some young workers what types of clothes are appropriate, including for client-site visits.

Many people are dressing less formally, said Scott Redfearn, Protiviti’s executive vice president of global human resources. 

Now the company defines what it means by business casual—including slacks, tailored denim, sport jackets, dresses, skirts, collared shirts, blouses, sweaters and professional footwear—and explains why it’s important to maintain a serious professional image. The company also relays that when it is appropriate to wear bluejeans, darker hues without rips are best, he said.

The company has tried to be proactive when it shares broad guidance about attire, but when a worker shows up in athleisure or flip-flops, that is best handled with a one-on-one conversation.

“Working hybrid brings a lot more decisions to the individual employee,” Redfearn said. 

During the pandemic, the firm extended its onboarding process to a series of small-group virtual meetings that took place over a full year. One topic includes making conversation as a social skill, he said. It includes an improv-based public-speaking workshop, where in one prompt, participants need to describe themselves in three words quickly, going with their first impulse. The company said the sessions help workers to find their authentic communication styles. 

Protiviti hosts social gatherings around in-person meetings so that workers can practice. 

Redfearn said he gives a pep talk to new graduates, urging them to introduce themselves around the office, stick their hand out and smile. Another tip: Have a prepared question ready to ask if needed. 

Ray A. Smith contributed to this article.

Write to Lindsay Ellis at lindsay.ellis@wsj.com


Elzinga Flash Seminar

Feature | 10/03/2016


This newsletter from the ECO includes jobs and internships for economics majors, events, and workshops!

Elzinga Flash Seminar

Feature | 08/12/2016

4 Interview Questions Venture Capital Firms Ask

Venture capital interviews aren’t tricky. Generally, there are no brainteasers or case questions. A VC interview is a chance for venture capitalists to get a sense of you, the same way they do when meeting with entrepreneurs. That’s how venture capitalists make investment decisions—(You may need to login into CavLink to access this article).

Feature | 07/07/2018


UVA Professor Federico Ciliberto, UVA PhD Candidate Emily E. Cook, and UVA alumnus and current UNC Professor Jonathan W. Williams recently published “Network Structure and Consolidation in the U.S. Airline Industry, 1990-2015” in the Review of Industrial Organization. The authors study the effect of consolidation on airline network connectivity using three measures of centrality from graph theory: Degree; Closeness; and Betweenness. Degree is the fraction of all possible links that are actually served by at least one airline out of an airport; Closeness is the inverse of the average distance (i.e., number of links) from an airport to every other airport; and Betweenness is the frequency with which an airport is found to be on the shortest path between two other airports.

Changes in these measures from 1990 to 2015 imply: i) the average airport services a greater proportion of possible routes; ii) the average origin airport is fewer stops away from any given destination; and iii) the average hub is less often along the shortest route between two other airports. Yet, the authors find the trend toward greater connectivity in the national network structure is largely unaffected by consolidation—in the form of mergers and codeshare agreements—during this period. Forty years after its deregulation, the airline industry continues to be the focus of research, antitrust cases, and public policy debates. In this paper the authors contribute to the evolving debate by examining how mergers and alliances have shaped the entire industry’s U.S. network.  
The figure above, which captures trends in the network measures from 1990 to 2015, shows the year fixed effects and associated confidence intervals from separate OLS regressions of standardized Degree, Closeness, and Betweenness on a constant along with year, month, and airport fixed effects.



Feature | 01/18/2022

“Phillip Jefferson, UVa PhD (1990), nominated to serve on the Federal Reserve Board

Feature | 11/02/2020

Sabrina Peng, Winner of the Annual International Atlantic Economic Society Undergraduate Paper Competition

Elzinga Flash Seminar

Feature | 10/02/2021

Perks and Benefits 101: Explanations and Questions to Ask Before You Take the Job

by Erica Sweeney at The Muse

Once you’ve found a job and company that you’re really excited about, salary might top your list of priorities. But while salary is important, it’s only part of the overall offer. To get the full scope of what you’ll really earn at a job, you need to factor in the perks and benefits that a company offers, too.

“Look at it as more of a package than just a job with a paycheck,” says Leslie Slay, senior vice president of employee benefits services at Woodruff Sawyer, an insurance brokerage and consulting firm.

Compensation traditionally includes non-salary benefits like health insurance and retirement plans. And many companies also offer perks—including flexible schedules, educational opportunities, and wellness programs—to support employees in other ways. “More and more, perks and benefits are becoming integrated together” to support employees in a more holistic way, says Bobbi Kloss, director of human capital management services at Benefit Advisors Network.

On average, a benefits package makes up about 30% of an employee’s total compensation in the U.S. So it’s definitely worth paying attention to the perks and benefits a company offers as you’re looking for a job in addition to the salary.

Employee benefits and perks can be confusing, though. In fact, about a third of all workers and 54% of millennials said they don’t understand the employee benefits they signed up for, according to a 2020 survey by Voya Financial. So as a job seeker it’s often up to you to ask a prospective employer plenty of questions to make sure the benefits they’re offering meet your needs.

Better understanding the benefits and perks you’re offered will help you make the best choice about which job offer to accept. To help guide you, here’s an overview of 15 common employee perks and benefits you might come across as you look for your next job:

1. Health Insurance

Health insurance pays (or helps pay) for your medical expenses as they come up in exchange for a premium, or money paid—by you and/or your employer—to the insurance provider each month. Health insurance plans typically cover doctor visits, prescription drugs, emergency care, and certain medical procedures.

Health insurance plans vary from company to company and you’ll likely have a few to choose from. Some companies pay the full premium on their employee’s behalf, but usually you have to contribute to the cost with a certain amount that comes out of your paycheck before taxes. You may have some other out-of-pocket expenses, too, such as copays when you visit your doctor. Many insurance plans also have a deductible, which is an amount of money you’re responsible for paying before your health coverage kicks in. Make sure you’re aware of these costs before you choose a plan to enroll in.

And to ensure a company plan meets your needs, Kloss suggests checking that it covers treatments for any medical conditions you have or prescription medications you take, and that your preferred doctors are in the plan’s network.

If you have dependents (most commonly children or a partner you support financially) or plan to soon, you should also check that the plan will cover everyone and how much it will cost you. For example, a company may pay 100% of your health insurance premium but you may be stuck paying the full premium for everyone else in your family (which can add up fast). Read more about what all those health insurance terms mean here.

Find jobs at companies that offer health insurance

2. Dental and Vision Insurance

Dental and vision insurance cover your dental and eye-care needs. Dental insurance typically covers routine exams, cleanings, x-rays, and some portion of procedures like root canals and fillings. Vision insurance generally covers eye exams and prescription lenses.

Many employers offer dental and vision insurance, either as part of health insurance or as separate benefits. But whereas some employers cover a portion or all of the costs of health insurance, most companies require you to pay in full for dental and vision insurance, Slay says.

Just as you would with health insurance, check if the plans will let you keep your dentist and eye doctor (if you’d rather not switch) and cover any pre-existing conditions or treatments that you need.

Find jobs at companies that offer dental insurancevision insurance, or both

3. Flexible Spending Account

A flexible spending account (FSA) allows you to put pre-tax money aside to pay for the year’s out-of-pocket healthcare costs, like over-the-counter medications, copays for doctor visits, medical devices like crutches or blood sugar tests, or vision and dental care needs like glasses or contacts. Your employer may also contribute up to $500 to your FSA without you contributing anything (they can match you dollar for dollar on top of the $500), so be sure to check if a company will pay into your account before determining your own contributions. Total FSA contributions are capped at a certain amount each year (for example, they were capped at $2,750 for 2021).

Find jobs at companies that offer FSA accounts

4. Life Insurance

Life insurance is an insurance policy that pays a set amount of money to your chosen beneficiary (or beneficiaries) when you die. If you’re just starting your career and don’t have any children or others who depend on you financially, life insurance may not seem necessary. But it’s still something you should consider, Slay says—especially if your company covers your full premium.

You decide who you want to leave the money to, such as your parents or another family member, to help cover funeral costs, for example. You could even name your favorite charity as the beneficiary.

Find jobs at companies that offer life insurance

5. Disability Insurance

Disability insurance offers compensation or income replacement when you’re unable to work because of an injury or illness that’s not job-related. “I can’t tell you how critical disability insurance is; it protects your paycheck,” Slay says. Disability insurance is usually optional, but worth looking into, she says—just find out what your employer offers and what it will cost you. Some policies are fully paid by an employer and others require you to pay some of the costs in the form of a paycheck deduction, Slay says.

There are two types of disability insurance: short term and long term. Short-term disability insurance varies according to your plan, but typically covers you if you’re out of work for less than six months and on average pays about 60% of your regular salary, according to the Bureau of Labor Statistics. Most long-term disability insurance lasts for 10 years or less (but some policies last until you reach retirement age) and covers about 60% of your annual earnings.

Find jobs at companies that offer short-term disability insurancelong-term disability insurance, or both

6. 401(k)s

401(k) is a retirement-savings plan that’s commonly sponsored by your employer. Plans can vary, but generally you contribute to the fund as a pre-tax paycheck deduction and pay taxes on the money when you withdraw it during retirement. Many companies match employees’ 401(k) contributions, either dollar for dollar, where they put in what you put in, or with a partial match—for example, adding 50 cents for every dollar you contribute, up to a certain percentage of your salary. Yearly employee 401(k) contributions are capped (the limit is $19,500 for 2021), but the employer match doesn’t count toward the limit.

Retirement may seem like a long time away. But Slay urges early career employees to contribute as much as they can to their 401(k), especially if there’s an employer match. The match can help you grow your savings faster and if you’re not taking advantage of it, you’re essentially leaving money on the table that your employer is offering to give you. Plus, in an emergency you may be able to pull money out of your 401(k) before retirement (and without paying a tax penalty) for certain expenses, like buying a home or paying medical bills.

Some companies have taken a new approach to employee retirement benefits recently to meet their workers’ current needs, Slay says. For example, some help employees pay down student loan debt by making direct payments to their lender, while others make a larger 401(k) contribution to employees currently paying off student debt.

Find jobs at companies that offer 401(k)s or 401(k)s with company match

7. Paid Time Off

Paid time off (PTO) can include paid holidays, sick leave, federal and state holidays, personal days, and vacation days.

Typically, the amount of PTO offered by your company is based on how long you’ve worked for them, and you accrue more PTO over time (for example, if you get 15 days of PTO per year, that means you accrue about 0.058 hours of PTO for every hour you work, or roughly 10.5 hours of PTO per month). If, say, you’re looking to start a new job right before a holiday or planned trip, you might want to ask the company if it has a policy about using PTO before you’ve technically accrued it.

How a company offers PTO varies, too. For example, some designate a separate number of personal, sick, or vacation days, which is sometimes required by state law. But, Slay says, more employers are lumping all PTO in together to make taking off easier for employees. Some companies even offer unlimited PTO.

Time off is an important factor in your overall compensation, so make sure to ask about how many PTO days you get. Often, you can negotiate your PTO, Slay says, particularly since the pandemic has shown more companies the benefits of giving their workers more time off. “PTO is one of those areas where you can ask for things that are a little different and you might get them.” Also, be sure to check if you can carry over unused PTO into a new year and whether you’ll be paid for any unused days when you leave the company.

Find jobs at companies that offer paid holidayspaid vacationpersonal and sick days, or unlimited vacation

8. Family and Medical Leave

The Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA) is a U.S. law that enables employees to take unpaid leave for certain family and medical reasons. Employees can take up to 12 weeks off for the birth or adoption of a child, a family member with a medical condition who needs care, their own health condition that prevents them from performing job functions, and other reasons.

Under this law, your job is protected and your health insurance continues during this leave. Companies with more than 50 employees are required to comply with the law and you’re eligible if you’ve worked for the company for at least 12 months and meet other requirements. If you’re considering going to work for a smaller company, be sure to find out their policies for family and medical leave.

Find jobs at companies with more than 50 employees

9. Parental Leave

Parental leave enables employees to take off following the birth of a child, an adoption, or the arrival of a newly placed foster child, or for a child otherwise needing parental care, according to the U.S. Department of Labor. Though the FMLA requires some employers to offer unpaid leave in these instances, there’s no broad guarantee of parental leave in the U.S.—which means it comes down to the employer.

More than half of U.S. employers offer paid new child leave to women, and 45% offer paid new child leave to men, according to a 2020 study by the Society for Human Resource Management and Oxford Economics. However, specific policies vary for the companies that do offer parental leave, so find out about a prospective employer’s rules if you plan to start a family soon, Slay says. Ask whether the leave is paid or unpaid, whether your job will be there waiting for you when you return, and how much time off you’re allowed.

Find jobs at companies that offer maternity leavepaternity leave, or both

10. Remote Work Options

Remote work gives employees the freedom to work from home or anywhere else outside of a traditional office setting, either full time or part time in a hybrid schedule. The COVID-19 pandemic made remote work a necessity, and it was such a hit with workers that many have said they’ll quit their jobs rather than go back to the office. Employers realize that remote work has benefits for them, too, such as opening up a much broader, more diverse talent pool to hire from, so many organizations plan to allow remote work in some fashion post-pandemic.

While more employers will be offering fully or partially remote positions after the pandemic off the bat, the ability to work from home is something you can likely negotiate, Kloss says. “I think employers are recognizing after COVID that they can be more flexible in those areas than they ever thought possible.” So find out whether you’ll be able to work remotely some or all of the time and what the company’s policies are for remote work schedules, virtual meetings, and communication. Also ask whether they provide equipment or stipends for internet, phone, or other expenses for remote workers.

Find jobs at companies that offer remote work opportunities

11. Flexible Schedules

A flexible schedule is when your employer allows you to work hours and days outside of the traditional nine-to-five, Monday-to-Friday schedule. For instance, you might work 10 hours a day, four days a week or set core hours when you’re available, such as 9 AM to 1 PM, and have flexibility the rest of the day to complete your work whenever you’d like. Like with remote work, the pandemic led more companies to offer flexible schedules to accommodate different work styles and time zones as well as employees who have children or other caretaking responsibilities. 

Flexible schedules are another perk that you can likely negotiate—just make sure you and your employer both come away with a clear idea of which days and times you’ll work.

Find jobs at companies that offer flexible work hours

12. Wellness Programs

Workplace wellness programs aim to improve an employee’s mental and physical health and offer more resources beyond health insurance. Wellness programs have traditionally included health screenings and tools to help people lose weight or stop smoking, according to the Kaiser Family Foundation.

But organizations have taken a broader, more holistic approach to their wellness programs in recent years by offering individualized supports that take into account an employee’s emotional, social, physical, and financial needs, Kloss says. Wellness-based perks—such as fitness subsidies, meals, and access to mental wellness apps and counseling—are becoming more common.

Even more so than with other perks and benefits, wellness program offerings vary widely, so find out the specifics of what a company offers and consider how it meets your needs.

Find jobs at companies that offer wellness programsfitness subsidieson-site gymand meals

13. Education Benefits

Most companies offer some type of education benefit, including access to online courses, on-the-job training, tuition reimbursement for continuing education, and learning and development stipends to cover educational expenses.

If you’re just starting your career, these programs can help you succeed long term by keeping your skills fresh, which could increase your chances for promotions or raises, Slay says. Education benefits and perks also signal that a company values and invests in its employees and their growth. So be sure to ask what a company you’re planning to work for offers if education is important to you.

Find jobs at companies that offer access to online coursestuition reimbursement, or learning and development stipends

14. Mentor Programs

Mentor programs pair you with someone at your company who’s more experienced and can answer questions and offer guidance to help you advance in your career. “Mentorship is huge,” Slay says. Mentors can serve as advocates to help you navigate the technical and political parts of a job as well as you build and expand your network.

Mentorship programs help employees feel valued, create a culture of learning and increase job satisfaction and productivity, Slay says. So find out whether a company provides formal or informal mentoring and what their programs entail.

Find jobs at companies that offer mentor programs

15. Diversity, Equity, and Inclusion Programs

Diversity, equity, and inclusion (DEI) programs and initiatives encourage the representation and participation of different and often underrepresented groups, such as women, people of color, people with disabilities, and the LGBTQ community. The programs may include mentorship opportunities, targeted recruitment efforts, and employee resource groups (ERGs).

As with many employee benefits and perks, some DEI programs are more robust than others. So it’s a good idea to find out the specifics of what a company offers and how it aligns with your values and needs, rather than just noting that they’ve ticked the box in offering a DEI program.

Find jobs at companies that offer diversity and inclusion programs

Before you accept a job offer, make sure you have a good grasp of the company’s benefits and perks and how they fit into your overall compensation structure. Ask plenty of questions to get all the details of how each benefit and perk aligns with your needs and negotiate to get what you want. Keep in mind, too, that when you’re searching for open jobs on The Muse, you can set filters so you’ll only see open positions at companies that offer the benefits and perks that matter most to you.



Feature | 01/15/2021

Brett Fischer presents at NTA Annual Conference

PhD candidate Brett Fischer presented his paper, "No Spending without Representation: School Boards and the Racial Gap in Education Finance," at the National Tax Association's 2020 Annual Conference, as part of a panel on education finance.

Elzinga Flash Seminar

Feature | 04/01/2017


Click here to read the rest of the article. 

Feature | 01/09/2023

Mahalanobis Memorial Medal for "outstanding contributions to quantitative economics, while working in India" for Tarun Jain (PhD 2009).

The Indian Econometric Society awarded Tarun Jain  the Mahalanobis Memorial Medal (M3) in the memory of the late Professor P. C. Mahalanobis for "outstanding contributions to quantitative economics, while working in India

Elzinga Flash Seminar

Feature | 05/30/2017


"If you're the analytical type, fascinated by the world around you, then an economics major might be a good choice for you. A degree in economics can be used in many areas, including public policy and finance. You can use an economics degree to study industry trends, labor markets, the prospects for individual companies, and the forces that drive the economy.

Economics majors learn to gather, organize, and interpret data, using mathematical formulas and statistics to make calculations. They also create models to predict the impact of investments, policy decisions, industry trends, demographics, climate change and much more."-Mike Profita


Click here to read the rest of the article. 




Elzinga Flash Seminar

Feature | 05/01/2023

ECO Comments on Six-Second Resume Test

The following comments are responses to The Wall Street Journal article "Does Your Resume Pass the Six-second Test?"
Comments from Jennifer Jones, Edwin T. Burton Economics Career Office

Yes, this is about right. I take about 30 seconds for a first pass at a resume, before screening the finer details. If I'm familiar with an employer and job description, my thorough review (before comments to the student) will be about 2 minutes and if I'm unfamiliar with the employer/job description my review may take 3-4 minutes as I toggle between the job posting and the employer. I use the analogy of selling a house and staging a home.  The exterior of the house and the property is curb appeal and most recruiters are seeking curb appeal before they get deeper. So, the top 1/3 of the resume needs to draw attention for super competitive industries/employers. The curb appeal definitely consists of key words from the job posting, relevant experience/skills, industry/job function buzzwords, demonstrating excellence. (For students that includes GPA, test scores, honors awards, and leadership.). Applicant Tracking Systems (ATS) make this process trickier because we don't know the algorithms that are used, but keywords remain a best practice.


Forget the Professional Statement

Yes, especially for students. It's unnecessary and squanders the most valuable real estate. I discourage using a profile or objective statement entirely, even in cases when a student is pivoting away from their major in their job search. The college resume is already structured to highlight relevant experience that diverges from one's major using Relevant Coursework as a category for example, and others. I could be persuaded against this, but likely this would be only for a non-traditional student, i.e. for someone who had military service or worked for several years before pursuing their undergraduate degree.


As for replacing the professional statement with a list of skills - not for everyone. For our students, Education should be listed first to be clear that they are seeking entry-level employment. If a student has worked full-time before attending college or has military service experience, this will come in their experience section, or in a skills section immediately after their education. This is where I've seen and encouraged the most significant formatting changes in recent years - including the Skills section before Experience. When a student has very strong, unusual, or relevant technical skills it may be worthwhile including those in the top 1/3 of the resume rather than lower.


Don't Be a Jack of All Trades

I agree on principle, but for students applying for their first internship or micro-internship, a thematic resume may be more difficult to create. Recruiters understand this. But, often, we can find a thread of interest to convey on the resume. By fourth-year students should be more successful in customizing their resumes for a couple of different job functions or industries/conveying their experience with a clear theme that is relevant to the job at hand. If not, that's an important conversation to have with a career advisor.


Use Numbers

Yes, Yes, Yes! I spend a good deal of time quantifying students' accomplishments with them. They often think of responsibilities rather than achievements. With finance-related roles or summer internships that led to easily recognizable quantifiable outcomes, this is easy. But this is more challenging for third-years, especially, who may be coming from less professional roles. Simply changing their ice cream shop experience from "served customers ice cream" to "served 75 customers an hour and upsold toppings to ~50%" reveals a lot of info about the pace, volume, understanding of profit, etc. and likely can lead to a great conversation about customer service, running a business, etc.


Make Your LinkedIn Profile the Priority

I disagree with this, but only for students. For more experienced job-seekers this makes sense, and for recently graduated students. However, if students are applying for their jobs through LinkedIn, then their profiles ought to be rock-solid and descriptive. I also do not like the "Open to Work" tag because I'm not sure that the signal is perceived the same by everyone. We have a wonderful AI tool in Handshake called Aspire, which helps students to build a great LinkedIn profile. 

do recommend that every job-seeking/graduate school-seeking student build a LinkedIn account to conduct research and network. 


Feature | 05/23/2022

Joaquin Saldain Presents at Midwest Macroeconomics Conference

In May 2022, 6th-year student Joaquin Saldain presented his paper, "A Quantitative Model of High-Cost Consumer Credit,"  at the Midwest Macroeconomics Conference in Logan, Utah. Joaquin summarizes the paper this way: "I study the welfare consequences of regulations on high-cost consumer credit in the US, such as borrowing limits and interest rate caps. I estimate a heterogeneous-agents model with risk-based pricing of loans that features standard exponential discounters and households with self-control and temptation. I use transaction-level payday lending data and the literature's valuations of a no-borrowing incentive to identify different household types. I find that one-third of high-cost borrowers suffer from temptation. Although individually targeted regulation could improve the welfare of these households, I find that noncontingent regulatory borrowing limits and interest-rate caps—like those contained in typical regulations of payday loans—reduce the welfare of all types of households. The reason is that lenders offer borrowers tight individually-targeted loan price schedules that limit households' borrowing capacity so that noncontingent regulatory limits cannot improve welfare over them."

Elzinga Flash Seminar

Feature | 04/15/2019

5 Tips on How to Make the Most of Your Summer

#1. Start a service-based business.

Unless you’ve got a reliable summer job, there’s probably a whole host of benefits to make your summer money working on your own terms.

There’s no reason any college student can’t make $1-2k/month over summer break with their own side hustle.

Start a babysitting, landscaping, pet sitting, or other service-based business. Become a full-time merchant and flip stuff on sites like Craigslist or LetGo.

Pick something you won’t mind doing for 4-8 hours a day. Then start looking for work.

I discovered the power of a side hustle during summer ’17. In 43 days, I made $4,067 mowing lawns, digging trenches, and moving rocks.

Odd jobs saved me from having to get a real job while my business went through a few lean months.

If you take the initiative to find clients, you can find steady work in as little as 2-3 days.

Tips for would-be entrepreneurs:

  1. Make it incredibly easy for people to hire and pay you. Capitalize on the convenience factor by having Venmo, Paypal, and Square cash all set up. You’d be surprised how many older people don’t write checks anymore.
  2. Sell your story. Make sure your neighbors know you are a college student willing to work hard in exchange for money while you’re studying. Don’t milk it, but make sure they know your situation.
  3. Charge what you’re worth. Some people will try to low-ball you because you’re a student. Don’t accept anything less than $15/hour. If you’re a good worker, it’s absolutely reasonable to ask for $25/hour for your time.
  4. Ask clients to spread the word and/or rehire you. You’d also be surprised how many people need the type of help you’re offering. As you’re leaving a job, just mention to them that you’ll be available for work until August/September.

Be sure to add that the fact that you built a business from scratch (with X number of clients and revenue) to your 2018-appropriate resume (see #5).


#2. Read 10 books.

10 books in one summer? I haven’t read a book for fun ever!“, you say.

Maybe so, but there’s no reason you can’t start now.

Part of the reason you don’t read for pleasure probably has to do with how much reading you already do for your classes. Or maybe you just don’t like reading.

Summer is the perfect time to get back into (or start) reading for enjoyment.

And if you’re so inclined, it’s the best time to choose books that will help you grow as a young professional, too.

Set a goal to read 3, 5, or 10 books over summer. The number doesn’t matter so much as the types of books you choose.

I encourage you to not read books about your favorite subjects during college summer break. Instead, read non-fiction books that teach you how to better work with and understand people.

You’ll be doing that for the next 40 years, after all.

You can see my book selections for 10 Books Every College Student Should Read Before Graduation.

I highly recommend them all, but #1 stands alone. I think it should be mandatory reading for all college students.


#3. Get to know yourself better.

Every year of college is like its own island. You’re going to be pushed differently and change as a person a lot over your 4-year college career.

Young people seldom take the opportunity to get to know themselves better- which is 100% to your advantage to do so.

You will stand out from the people you’ll be competing for jobs with.

Employers will see you as someone with clarity, confidence, and an understanding of your skill sets.

One easy (and free) way to understand yourself better is to take the Myers-Briggs personality test on 16personalities.com.

The test takes less than 10 minutes, and for most, is incredibly eye-opening.

The best part about the 16Personalities test is it breaks your personality up into categories like strengths & weaknessesemotionsromantic relationshipsfriendshipscareer paths, and work habits.

If you take the test and want to learn more about how your personality might affect your career choice, email me.


#4. Travel somewhere relevant to your major.

I’m encouraging you to use your college summer break to smartly differentiate yourself from other college students.

Yes, many other students at your school will travel this summer. Don’t be basic like me and go take selfies at the Eiffel tower (for real though, I almost got robbed twice in Paris).

Use your college summer break to visit places that interest you professionally– and eventually, impress people who matter.

Pick a place that creates talking points with your professors in the fall and future employers.

Consider the history, origin, and current affairs of your subject or major. I don’t know your major, so you’ll need to do a bit of Googling.

For example, as a sports science student, I might go to Athens and visit the original Olympic stadium.

A selfie there is worth a lot more than a candid swing picture in Thailand.

If I could do it again, I’d probably use a college student travel program like Student-Athletes Abroad.

Where could you go? If you’re on a budget, check out all the cheap travel resources I came across backpacking Europe for 2 months on $5,000.


#5. Create a 2018-appropriate resume with technology.

Stop listening to old people give advice about the “right way” to write a resume.

Even many college academic success centers don’t have a clue what resumes should look like these days.

It’s actually scary that academic success center employees get paid full-time salaries to teach college students supposed “crucial”-yet completely antiquated- resume building techniques.

The truth is, your first job is probably going to be offered to you by someone between the ages of 30-45. AKA, there’s a 50% chance the person hiring you is a Millennial.

It’s safe to assume your first boss understands and relates to technology.

Guidelines you should follow when writing a resume include keeping it short (1 page), chronologically organized, and thoroughly edited for grammar/spelling. Other than that, make it your own.

Take time during your summer vacation to write a resume that adequately showcases your understanding of technology in 2018.

Some ideas:

  • Create a “video resume“, then upload it to YouTube with a private link. Add this link to your cover letter. (Bonus: you’ll know how many people have reviewed your resume based on how many views the video gets.)
  • Add links to anything relevant that you’ve built online to your resume. Save your resume as a PDF and you’re good to go.
  • Position yourself as one unique thing. You’re not an “aspiring college graduate with interests in humanities”. Well, maybe you are, but no one gives a crap about hiring you. However you choose to present yourself, be authenticboldquick to the point (the “listicle” world we live in has even infiltrated the job scene), and honest.

Seriously, look at suggestions #1-4. All of them can go on your 2018-appropriate resume.

Use your new 2018-appropriate video resume to show employers that you’re an INFP-vagabonding-bookworm with entrepreneurial tendencies. Bumble profile or resume header? You decide.

“What should college students do over the summer?”

Find ways to stand out.

Position yourself as uniquely qualified for the job you want when you graduate.

Start a businessTravelRead. Push yourself in new ways.

Then write a badass resume that showcases what you’ve been up to.

Feel free to party a bit too, but spend your college summer break doing stuff that will benefit you down the road.

3-4 months of summer vacation is a lot of time. Use it wisely.

Source here.

Elzinga Flash Seminar

Feature | 09/25/2018

Make a Powerful Interview Impact! (First Impressions Count!)

Feature | 03/25/2020

Moogdho Mahzab Presents at PacDev Conference

Moogdho Mahzab, a fifth year PhD student of Economics, presented his paper "Dishonest Politicians and Public Goods Provision" at the Pacific Conference for Development Economics (PacDev) 2020, hosted by University of California, Berkeley, on March 14. The conference was organized virtually with around 300 people joining it. A good number of papers on development economics were presented by researchers from around the globe. Moogdho presented his work at the "Taxes and Public Goods" session. PacDev is one of the  most engaging and academically rewarding conferences for development economists, and it has been doing a great service in past years of bringing development economists together on one common platform. More information about the conference could be found in the following link: PacDev2020.

City of Tampere

Feature | 11/01/2018

Cailin Slattery Presents at 74th Congress of the International Institute of Public Finance

Cailin Slattery presented two papers at the recent International Institute of Public Finance (IIPF) conference in Tampere, Finland; "Campaign Spending and Corporate Subsidies: Evidence from Citizens United v FEC" and "U.S. State Incentive Spending and Large Establishment Spillovers." Both papers use a new data set that she created on state incentive spending, and are closely related to her job market paper on how states compete for firms using discretionary subsidies. She received valuable feedback on her papers and discussed her research with Public Finance scholars from all over the world, including recent UVa grad Elliott Isaac, who is now an assistant professor at Tulane University. The conference was not only filled with research sessions, but included a walking tour along the Pyynikki Ridge,  the world's highest gravel ridge, which was formed by sediment accumulating between two glaciers.


Hamilton Angevine

Feature | 12/11/2018

Ben Hamilton Finds Conference Presentations Good Preparation for Job Market

On October 6, at the 74th Midwest International Trade Conference at Vanderbilt University,  I presented my job market paper, “Learning, Externalities, and Export Dynamics,” in a 25-minute talk to an audience of economists studying international trade. In November, I presented my job market paper twice at different venues in Washington D.C.  First, at the 88th Southern Economic Association annual meeting, where I received constructive feedback on a condensed 15-minute version of my talk from students and professors of varied concentrations. Next, at the second Mid-Atlantic International Trade Workshop, hosted by the Federal Reserve Board, I gave a longer, 40-minute version of my talk and benefited from helpful comments and discussion with other trade economists.  Having the opportunity to present my talk in a variety of formats, receive questions from audiences unfamiliar with me and my work, and network with many people in my field was a valuable experience, particularly as I prepare to go on the job market during the next few months.  

Elzinga Flash Seminar

Feature | 10/02/2017


"The irony of job search advice: There’s so much available that you don’t have to spend more than four seconds Googling before you land on some nugget of wisdom or another." - Jenny Foss

Click here to read the rest of the article.

Feature | 02/20/2023

Expert: Changing Demographics Force Changes to Social Security

Feature | 10/05/2022


Feature | 05/23/2022

Joaquin Saldain Presents at Midwest Macroeconomics Conference

In May 2022, 6th-year student Joaquin Saldain presented his paper, "A Quantitative Model of High-Cost Consumer Credit,"  at the Midwest Macroeconomics Conference in Logan, Utah. Joaquin summarizes the paper this way: "I study the welfare consequences of regulations on high-cost consumer credit in the US, such as borrowing limits and interest rate caps. I estimate a heterogeneous-agents model with risk-based pricing of loans that features standard exponential discounters and households with self-control and temptation. I use transaction-level payday lending data and the literature's valuations of a no-borrowing incentive to identify different household types. I find that one-third of high-cost borrowers suffer from temptation. Although individually targeted regulation could improve the welfare of these households, I find that noncontingent regulatory borrowing limits and interest-rate caps—like those contained in typical regulations of payday loans—reduce the welfare of all types of households. The reason is that lenders offer borrowers tight individually-targeted loan price schedules that limit households' borrowing capacity so that noncontingent regulatory limits cannot improve welfare over them."

Feature | 07/11/2018

Amzad Hossain Wins Global Infectious Disease Fellowship

Amzad Hossain was one of 4 graduate students recently awarded a GIDI iGrant by UVA's Global Infectious Diseases Institute, which supports faculty and graduate student research aimed at reducing the impact of infectious diseases around the globe. He will use the fellowship to further his research on mother and child mortality in Bangladesh. More specifically, Amzad says that he will collaborate with Moogdho Mahzab (a 4th year Economics PhD student) "to examine the effects of community-based health clinics on child health outcomes such as take-up of vaccines to prevent infectious diseases and neo-natal mortality. The government of Bangladesh in 1998 introduced a policy to establish 13,500 community clinics spread all over the country. Each community clinic (CC) was to provide various services including maternal & neonatal health care services for around 6,000 people. We will exploit the variation in the policy with regard to community clinics--its introduction, withdrawal and subsequent reintegration--to identify the effects of community clinics on health outcomes. As the search for effective ways to improve health outcome continues, our findings can be of great relevance for stakeholders and policy makers."

Elzinga Flash Seminar

Feature | 08/12/2016

Tech Careers for Liberal Arts Students

Is it possible to have a Tech career with a Liberal arts degree? Yes it is!

Elzinga Flash Seminar

Feature | 01/31/2022

ECO Article: The Ten Best Jobs for Introverts

Below the ECO is sharing the 10 Best Jobs for Introverts as written by The Muse. Our majors may be particularly interested in numbers 1, 5, 9, and 10. But they are all worth a glance!


Not every job is the right fit for every person—so it makes sense that you’d be looking to find a job and career path that feels well-suited to your personality.

While some folks might thrive in a role where they’re interacting with people all day, for others—particularly introverts—that might be completely draining.

So if you’re an introvert, you might wonder how to find a job that plays to your strengths, feels true to who you are, and leaves you feeling energized and excited at the end of the day. Rest assured, there are plenty of options.


What, Exactly, Is an Introvert?

Before we jump into the perfect jobs for introverts, let’s take a minute to define what an introvert actually is.

An introvert “gets their energy from solitude,” says Stephanie Thoma, leadership coach and author of Confident Introvert, a professional networking book for introverts. So while an introverted person can definitely hold their own in social situations, the experience can feel exhausting—and after extended periods of social interaction, they typically need alone time to rest and recharge.

One major misconception about introverts is that they’re shy. But that’s not necessarily true. While introverts can be shy (just like anyone can be shy!), introversion is not the same thing as shyness. “Deriving your energy from solitude doesn’t exclude you from feeling confident and comfortable in the presence of others,” Thoma says. “It just means you may need to take more care to preserve and conserve your energy when socializing.”

What Makes Certain Jobs Better for Introverts—and What Should Introverts Look for in a Role?

Because introverts get their energy from solitude, jobs that allow for independent working time are typically a better fit for introverts.

For example, “An introvert may thrive as a CPA, crunching numbers with precision and in-flow, formulaic repetition; a market research analyst who gets to pore over detailed qualitative or quantitative data; or a professor who has gotten to create materials about a specific subject matter to then share with purpose and passion with pupils,” Thoma says. The best jobs for introverts, she says, “have structure and clear expectations with an opportunity for creativity, and allow for focus.”

So introverts should look for jobs where some amount of solo work is built in—allowing them regular opportunities to focus on their own work—rather than roles that require constant engagement with coworkers, clients, or customers.

But pretty much every job requires at least some level of interaction, collaboration, and socializing. That’s not necessarily a bad thing, even if you consider yourself a more introverted person. Again, introverts can still enjoy working with other people and be successful doing it. It does mean, though, that you should also look for a company that prioritizes work-life balance and self-care—and allows you the opportunity to recharge when you need it.

“Self-care is an emerging priority for many companies who know that when employees are able to take walking breaks or lunch away from their computers,” Thoma says, or take care of themselves however they see fit, they “are more likely to thrive—and provide quality work to match. Since introverts may need more downtime outside of meeting rooms, this is an important consideration.”

Are you a proud introvert—and ready to find a job that plays to your strengths? Here are 10 roles to consider, plus salary information from the compensation resource PayScale (just keep in mind that PayScale’s database is updated nightly; the figures below reflect the latest information as of March 2021):


Software Engineer

Average salary: $86,803

Software engineers are responsible for engineering or developing different types of software (which is why they’re also called software developers). They are problem solvers at heart; they need to identify what problem the user is having—and then design, test, and develop software that solves that problem.

A career as a software engineer could be a great fit for an introvert because a large chunk of the job is writing code, testing, and fixing bugs—all of which involve independent work—though they should also be prepared to collaborate with their teams.

While some companies require a specific degree, many rely on technical interviews to assess candidate coding skills—so if you’ve got the coding chops, you can get your foot in the door as a software engineer.

Find software engineer and software developer jobs on The Muse


Content Marketing Manager

Average salary: $68,395

Content marketing managers are responsible for the development and execution of a marketing team’s content strategies. Depending on the company, a content marketing manager may oversee one or multiple content verticals, including print, digital, video, social media, and audio.

Content marketing managers may work with a variety of other people, including content strategists, writers, and creators; marketing colleagues; and folks on sales and other teams. Ultimately, their goal is to understand their target audience and drive awareness and engagement with their brands, products, and services. Depending on the size of the company, content marketing managers may also manage other people. But this role could still be a great fit for an introvert because it’s usually pretty evenly split between independent and collaborative work—giving introverts plenty of time to recharge.

While some companies require their content marketing managers to have a degree, many are more interested in candidates with a background in content development and promotion—so if you’re well-versed in all things content, you should be able to get your foot in the door.

Find content marketing manager and other content marketing jobs on The Muse



Average salary: $53,313

Editors are responsible for taking a piece of writing from the “just an idea” phase to the “working draft” phase to the “ready for publication” phase. This includes making suggestions to writers on ways the writing could be improved (for example, pointing out sections that are unclear or helping the writer define their voice and tone) as well as correcting any spelling or grammatical errors. While editors may work for newspapers, magazines, digital media companies, or book publishers, they may also be employed by businesses to support their content efforts—editing blog posts, ebooks, website copy, and more.

Editors do partner with writers (and often have to walk them through their edits) and other content or editorial team members to brainstorm and strategize—but the bulk of the actual editing process is a solitary activity, making it an ideal fit for introverts.

In order to succeed as an editor, you need to know the ins and outs of writing, including grammar, structure, style, and narrative. As such, many editors are writers themselves—and most have a degree in journalism, English, communications, or a related field. Editors who work for newspapers, magazines, and digital publications also need a solid grasp of reporting and fact-checking.

Find editor jobs on The Muse


Graphic Designer

Average salary: $46,010

Graphic designers are responsible for developing visual assets for a company. Depending on the company’s needs, this may include branding assets (like logos), marketing materials, product packaging, and digital assets. Many graphic designers are well-versed in a variety of design styles and techniques, though some specialize in certain areas (like logo design, packaging design, or infographic design). Graphic designers may work directly for a company, for an agency or design studio that works with clients to deliver on any design needs, or as freelancers or independent contractors.

While graphic designers will need to collaborate with supervisors, clients, or other stakeholders to get clear direction and feedback on their design assignments, during the designing phase, they’re free to work on their own—making this a great role for introverts.

In order to succeed as a graphic designer, you’ll need creativity and working knowledge of a variety of design programs—which many get through degree programs (though there are plenty of online learning platforms that can help you get up to speed if pursuing a degree isn’t the right fit).

Find graphic designer jobs on The Muse



Average salary: $51,639

Accountants handle financial tasks, which can include budgets, forecasts, financial reports, payroll, taxes, and audits. They may work for a company in house or for an accounting firm that provides accounting services to external clients.

A huge part of accounting is crunching numbers—a task that’s mostly done solo—making accounting a great field for introverts.

In order to land an accounting role, candidates will need to have a degree in accounting or a related field—and public accounting firms will typically only hire Certified Public Accountants (CPAs) or recent accounting graduates with plans to take their CPA exam.

Find accountant jobs on The Muse


Mechanical Engineer

Average salary: $71,538

Mechanical engineers are responsible for designing (or engineering), developing, building, and testing machines and other products. Mechanical engineering is, at the core, a problem-solving role; mechanical engineers need to not only be able to identify problems and build solutions, but also identify and solve mechanical issues as they build and iterate.

Mechanical engineers are highly technical critical thinkers and although they typically work in teams and need to be comfortable collaborating and managing projects, they also spend a lot of their time working independently—a great setup for an introvert.

To get hired as a mechanical engineer, you’ll need at least a bachelor’s degree in mechanical engineering—although many companies want their mechanical engineers to pursue advanced degrees.

Find mechanical engineer jobs on The Muse


IT Specialist

Average salary: $57,872

Information technology specialists (a.k.a., IT Specialists) are responsible for maintaining and managing a company’s internal IT processes and products. This can include managing IT requests, troubleshooting IT issues, installing and upgrading company hardware and software, and ensuring that all IT operations are running smoothly.

As an IT specialist, you’ll have to work with leadership and employees to field requests, identify IT issues, and answer IT-related questions—but the job also requires plenty of independent work time to manage IT systems and fix problems, so introverts will get the time they need to recharge.

While some companies require their IT specialists to have a degree in information technology or a related field, many will hire based on skill alone—so if you have an in-depth knowledge of IT systems, you should be able to get your foot in the door without a degree.

Find IT specialist and other information technology jobs on The Muse


Data Scientist

Average salary: $96,420

Data scientists are responsible for creating the frameworks that help their companies leverage data to make better business decisions. This can include everything from running data tests and experiments, implementing statistical models and algorithms, developing data products, and continually tweaking and optimizing their frameworks for more effective data analysis (and better business outcomes as a result).

While there is a certain level of collaboration necessary to succeed as a data scientist (for example, with data analysts or key business stakeholders as well as other data scientists or machine learning engineers), a good portion of a data scientist’s work is in framework development—a solo job great for an introvert.

A bachelor’s degree in computer science, math, statistics, engineering, or a related field is generally a must to pursue a career in data science—and some companies want their data scientists to hold advanced degrees.

Find data scientist and other data science jobs on The Muse


SEO Manager

Average salary: $70,244

SEO (which stands for search engine optimization) managers are responsible for making sure that when someone searches a relevant term, their company ranks at the top (or as close to the top as possible) of the results pages. The goal is to help increase the company’s visibility and drive new users or customers to their website. SEO managers develop and implement the SEO strategy, determining which technical and content-based search engine optimization strategies are going to drive the best results—and then continually adjust that strategy to improve their rankings.

SEO managers do collaborate with colleagues on other teams—including content and engineering. But they also spend a good deal of their time analyzing data, developing suggestions, and implementing optimizations—making this an ideal role for an introvert.

There’s no specific degree required to get into SEO, but in order to land an SEO manager position, you need to know the ins and outs of search engine optimization—and be able to stay on top of SEO practices, which are always changing and evolving.

Find SEO manager and other SEO jobs on The Muse



Average salary: $96,032

Actuaries typically work in the insurance industry and are responsible for evaluating risk factors and determining whether the insurance company should issue a policy to a specific person or business and, if so, what the premium for that policy should be.

This role is almost entirely focused on digging deep into math, data, and statistics, which is an inherently independent task—and a great fit for introverts (at least, for introverts who geek out on all things numbers).

Actuaries need to have a deep working knowledge of data and statistics—and a degree in actuarial science or a related field (like statistics or math) is often a requirement to get your foot in the door. You’ll also need to complete a series of exams given by the Society of Actuaries or Casualty Actuarial Society to earn your certification.

Find actuary jobs on The Muse

Deanna deBara

Deanna deBara is a freelance writer living in Portland, OR. When she's not busy building her business or typing away at her keyboard, she enjoys spending time hiking in the Pacific Northwest, traveling with her soon-to-be husband, or doting on her dog, Bennett. You can follow her on Twitter (she's a newbie!) at @Deanna_deBara.


Elzinga Flash Seminar

Feature | 08/30/2021

ECO Blog: Conversations with the CIA and World Bank

Conversations with Employers: CIA and World Bank

While many of you have been attending employer information sessions and meeting up with alumni for informational interviews, I've had some great conversations with employers that want to hire our majors. At the bottom of this blog, I've included some questions I ask when meeting with employers to learn about their internship and full-time opportunities. I've been thinking about how to get the information that I gather to you, and then it struck me that I could reach you all right here on our blog. If we see some traffic to this blog page, I'll use this method again to convey notes to you.  

Below I've included a few notes about both employers and how you may follow up for more information. These notes are specifically based on recruiting economics majors. The CIA is recruiting other majors for other positions, and I encourage you to check out their website for more technical and engineering opportunities.

1 - CIA - they are recruiting for financial analysts and political analysts. They do hire economic analysts but don't have an active posting right now. US citizenship is required. Second languages are useful but not required. There is great opportunity for promotion, advancement, and diversity of opportunity. 
These jobs require a security clearance, which can take some time to receive so connecting with the recruiter about interest early is helpful. I can connect you directly with the UVA recruiter. Send me an email to get started. 

As a Political Analyst at the CIA, you’ll support policymakers by producing and delivering written and oral assessments of the domestic politics, foreign policy, stability, and social issues of foreign governments and entities. Analysts examine actors’ goals and motivations, culture, values, history, society, decision-making processes, and ideologies in the context of how those elements affect U.S. interests and national security.

As a Finance Resource Officer Undergraduate Intern for the CIA, you will work with an accomplished and diverse team, providing a full range of financial support for mission requirements. Finance Resource Officers serve as one of the most trusted and financially accountable officers within the Agency and are responsible for the analysis and processing of financial transactions to ensure the financial integrity of the Agency’s funds. (taken from cia.gov)

Opportunities exist for foreign and domestic travel, language training, and analytic tradecraft and management training. You will have an opportunity to develop deep substantive expertise and participate in broadening assignments with other offices in the Agency and across the U.S. Government. (taken from cia.gov/careers) 

The paid time off sounds very generous. Other perks are continuous training and career development along with federal retirement and insurance.

To speak with their recruiter now, please contact me and I'll connect you.

Visit them:
9/8 on Grounds at the Finance Careers Night
9/22 at Intelligence and Security Networking Night

2 - World Bank

I spoke with economist Collette Wheeler, who works on the biannual Global Economic Prospects report. The World Bank has Short Term Consultant (STC) opportunities for imminent/recent graduates, who are interested in macro-economics. Topics researched and reported on include: Macroeconomics and Economic Growth, International Trade and Economics, Financial Sector Development. 

Taken from the January 2021 report: "The world economy is experiencing a very strong but uneven recovery, with many emerging market and developing economies facing obstacles to vaccination. The global outlook remains uncertain, with major risks around the path of the pandemic and the possibility of financial stress amid large debt loads. Policy makers face a difficult balancing act as they seek to nurture the recovery while safeguarding price stability and fiscal sustainability. A comprehensive set of policies will be required to promote a strong recovery that mitigates inequality and enhances environmental sustainability, ultimately putting economies on a path of green, resilient, and inclusive development. Prominently among the necessary policies are efforts to lower trade costs so that trade can once again become a robust engine of growth. This year marks the 30th anniversary of the Global Economic Prospects. The Global Economic Prospects is a World Bank Group Flagship Report that examines global economic developments and prospects, with a special focus on emerging market and developing economies." 

STCs may work for 150 days of the year and contracts may be renewed in subsequent years. These STC roles often lead to full-time employment with the bank either in the analyst track or the economist track. As I understood, the economist track requires stronger writing skills. The work involves data scraping and cleaning information from more than 160 countries in order for the bank to write its biannual reports. STCs will gather data from databases such as Bloomberg and create visualizations of their data using Excel, Matlab, and STATA. Familiarity with any of these tools will be helpful in the recruitment process. Ms. Wheeler works on Chapters 1 and 2 of the report. The research covers more than 200 commodities. The majority of Research Assistants at the WB, began as STCs, which means the STC job opens the door for future career prospects.

The application involves submitting a cover letter and resume. Then you may be contacted for a screening call, an Excel test, and a behavioral interview.  You may be asked macro-based questions in an interview and likely will be interviewed by multiple staff and scholars.

If these topics sound interesting to you, I encourage you to reach out to Collette Wheeler for an introductory call. Please contact me to connect with Ms. Wheeler.


Some Questions I Ask Employers
Often I conduct research before my employer meetings and may have answers to some of the questions below, in which case I either don't ask the question, or I confirm through the conversation.

  • What industry is your organization in and who are its clients?
  • Who are the competitors in this space?
  • What internship and entry-level positions are available now/typically?
  • What skills and knowledge are you seeking?
  • What makes a competitive candidate? (similar to the question above)
  • Are there other backgrounds you are seeking for your hiring needs? 
  • Talk about diversity initiatives you have in place for recruiting and inside the organization.
  • Are there mentorship opportunities for new employees?
  • What are the steps of the interview process?
  • How many students are you hiring?
  • At what other schools do you recruit and where do you see your best applicants and why? (Less important now with virtual recruiting)
  • How have our majors compared in the past to other UVA students/students at other schools?
  • What is the career trajectory?
  • What do employees typically do when they leave/why do they leave?
  • What is the compensation?
  • Who are the UVA alumni you work with at the organization (if any)?
  • How would you like to be involved with the department?
  • What kind of skill-building programs do you have in place to potentially share with our students?
  • How has Covid-19 affected your hiring/the work environment/on-boarding/start-dates?



Elzinga Flash Seminar

Feature | 08/09/2021

Rookie Bankers Sour on Wall Street's Pitch of Big Pay and Long Hours

By Kate Kelly and Lananh Nguyen

July 26, 2021

When Vince Iyoriobhe joined Bank of America’s investment banking division as a rookie analyst in 2017, he planned to stick around just long enough to get the experience needed to pursue his dream career in another corner of finance entirely — private equity.

“I knew banking was going to be tough,” Mr. Iyoriobhe, 26, said. But his attitude was: “I’m going to do it for two years and then go on to something else.”

The lure of investment banking is fading for the youngest members of the work force.

For decades, investment banking — the job of advising big companies on their most pressing needs — was one of Wall Street’s most prestigious careers, glorified in 1980s best sellers by writers like Tom Wolfe and Michael Lewis. Thousands of young hopefuls applied every year for a chance to start careers at Goldman Sachs, JPMorgan, Salomon Brothers and other banks as analysts — entry-level positions that taught aspiring financiers how to build financial models and evaluate businesses.

They embraced the long hours and grunt work in exchange for the prestige of jobs that eventually paid millions. In turn, each analyst class provided banks with a reliable pipeline of talent.

But new college graduates are increasingly unwilling to put themselves through the strenuous two-year analyst program, despite starting pay that can reach $160,000. That’s especially so as careers in technology and other parts of the finance world promise better hours and more flexibility. The pandemic, which forced many to reassess their work-life balance, has only underscored that thinking. Others, like Mr. Iyoriobhe — who put in 90-hour weeks at Bank of America, sometimes going home only to shower — are willing to do it for the minimum time necessary to put it on their résumés. He now works at a private equity firm.

“It’s kind of like going through boot camp,” said Ben Chon, a 27-year-old entrepreneur whose YouTube video about leaving his job as a health care banker in JPMorgan Chase’s San Francisco office, posted in February, has garnered more than 100,000 views.

Mr. Chon said he appreciated all that he had learned as an analyst, but added: “You don’t have control of your lifestyle, and you’re working even when you don’t want to.”

The number of applicants to banking analyst programs is hard to track, but business school data, which captures a slightly older cohort of potential financiers, shows a broad decline in interest in investment banking. Last year, the five top-ranked U.S. business schools sent, on average, 7 percent of graduates from their master’s of business administration programs into full-time investment banking roles, down from 9 percent in 2016. The decline was pronounced at the University of Pennsylvania’s Wharton School, where bankers were 12 percent of the M.B.A. cohort in 2020, compared with more than a fifth of the class a decade earlier. Harvard sent just 3 percent of its 2020 class.

In a recent Instagram survey on the page “Millennial Career Polls,” conducted by a former investment banker who wants to start a platform to help young professionals navigate their careers, 79 percent of the 139 respondents said they thought banking would be a less desired career in the future than when they had joined it. And in February, 13 analysts at Goldman showed their superiors a PowerPoint presentation describing brutally long hours and their declining health.

“The sleep deprivation, the treatment by senior bankers, the mental and physical stress … I’ve been through foster care and this is arguably worse,” one of the unnamed analysts surveyed in the presentation said.

“The industry is not as attractive” as it once was, said Rob Dicks, a consultant at Accenture who specializes in recruiting in financial services. “Employees want a hybrid model, and the banks are saying no,” he said, referring to a combination of in-person and remote work. “The message is: ‘The bank knows best, we have a model for doing this, and you will conform to that model.’”

A Culture of Overwork

Although top executives of the biggest banks have recently talked tough about the need for employees to return to the office, many are paying heed to the complaints of their youngest workers. Goldman’s chief executive, David Solomon, said in an earnings call this month that his firm would pay more competitively and enhance rewards for performance. Goldman is also enforcing its no-work-on-Saturday rule. JPMorgan is rolling out technology to automate some aspects of analysts’ work, and recently hired more than 200 additional junior bankers to ease the pressure in a particularly busy year.

A first-year investment banking analyst in New York can make as much as $160,000 in a year, including a bonus, according to estimates from Wall Street Prep, a company that helps aspiring bankers train for the industry. But several firms, including Citigroup, Bank of America, JPMorgan and Barclays, have raised the salaries of junior bankers. Credit Suisse paid what it described internally as “lifestyle bonuses” of $20,000 to younger bankers.

Jefferies, another investment bank, even offered Peloton bikes, Apple Watches and other perquisites to thank more than 1,100 of its analysts and associates — the next rank up — for working hard during the pandemic. Jefferies employees “have gotten us through the hardest period we have experienced in our careers,” Rich Handler, the bank’s chief executive, and Brian Friedman, its president, wrote in a July 1 letter to staff and clients.

Still, banks tend to hew to a work culture fetishized in the 1980s, when Mr. Wolfe’s “The Bonfire of the Vanities” memorialized Wall Street as the home of “masters of the universe.” Young analysts worked around the clock, picked up coffee and food orders for the team, endured mindless tasks like filing trade tickets, and were subjected to pranks and verbal abuse. In exchange, they gained a foothold in one of the most lucrative careers available, when new products like bonds backed by mortgages and corporate mergers and acquisitions were creating vast profits.

Some of today’s heaviest hitters in banking got their start in that heyday, including John Waldron, the president of Goldman Sachs; Sharon Yeshaya, Morgan Stanley’s new chief financial officer; and Carlos Hernandez, executive chair of investment and corporate banking at JPMorgan.

Banks lost much of their allure after the 2008 financial crisis, just as Silicon Valley was taking off, and private equity firms morphed from small partnerships to asset management behemoths. The newer career options promised potentially quicker and bigger payouts, better hours, lofty corporate missions and perks like taking pets to the office. To young graduates, banking analyst roles appeared too grinding to be worth the effort, at least over the long term.

In recent years, recruiters for giant private equity firms like Carlyle and Blackstone, which manage billions of dollars for clients and also buy up companies, began wooing analysts even before they started their jobs.

Brian Moynihan, the chief executive of Bank of America, said that wasn’t necessarily a bad thing. “They’re very talented kids, especially around the investment banking arena,” he told Bloomberg TV this month. “And there’s a lot of offers from private equity and other things that we’re training them for our clients, and that’s OK, too.”

And there’s the pull of Silicon Valley.

“The technology sector has just completely changed the game,” said Jamie Lee, 37, who worked in banking before starting a venture-capital firm this year. “The opportunity cost is simply too high to be sticking around in a job where you’re not getting the treatment that you want.”

Mr. Lee’s father, the JPMorgan banker Jimmy Lee, was for decades one of the best-known players in his field, advising companies like Facebook and General Motors before he died in 2015. But when the younger Mr. Lee was finishing college in the mid-2000s, his father urged him to avoid the analyst programs.

“He said, ‘Honestly, J, the way that I’ve seen that we work these kids, I’m not sure that I want that for you,’” Mr. Lee recalled.

It’s Not All About the Money

More compensation may not be enough for lots of young workers, for whom the pandemic only highlighted the less palatable aspects of investment banking — even as other careers dangled more appealing work-from-home policies.

Armen Panossian, a rising senior at Rutgers University, is interning in the logistics division of the energy company BP and hoping to land a similar full-time role after college. He said the pandemic was part of his motivation for pursuing a more 9-to-5 job rooted in finance.

“I think a lot of people rediscovered the importance of mental health,” Mr. Panossian, 21, said.

Eden Luvishis, a 20-year-old student of finance, computer science and math at the Stevens Institute of Technology in Hoboken, N.J., wants to work in fintech but would consider becoming an engineer at a major bank — a career that could marry her interest in finance with a more predictable way of working.

“I was never so interested in traditional banking jobs,” she said. “For me it was always more of the quant side,” meaning roles involving quantitative analysis. “I really love math.”

Before graduating from Mount Holyoke College in 2016, Areeba Kamal worked for a summer as a trading intern handling complex bond products at Bank of America’s Midtown Manhattan tower. She arrived around 8:30 a.m. and often stayed until 10:30 p.m., trying to learn the intricacies of her product. She sent money to her family in Pakistan.

“If you’re an international student, early on you realize your two options are finance and tech,” said Ms. Kamal, 29, noting that those fields offer the most pay and help with work visas.

But after that summer in finance, she gravitated toward tech. “I don’t want to work 14 to 15 hours a day on something I don’t care about because it pays a ridiculous amount of money,” Ms. Kamal said. She now works for Apple.

Still, not everyone is down on banking. Herby Dieujuste, 25, who worked one summer for JPMorgan’s private bank and did a stint as a TD Bank teller, is studying for one of the required licenses for starting bankers while interviewing for investment banking positions. A longtime basketball player, he said it was unsurprising that the banking industry would treat its rookies as dismissively as a sports team might — until they proved themselves.

“I want to be somewhere where I know I can be for a decade or two, and I always saw finance as that kind of industry,” he said.


Kate Kelly is a business reporter, covering big banks, trading and key financial-policy players. She is also the co-author of “The Education of Brett Kavanaugh” and the author of “Street Fighters.”  @katekelly

Correction: July 26, 2021

An earlier version of this article misidentified the class of a university student. Armen Panossian is a rising senior at Rutgers University, not a rising junior.

Elzinga Flash Seminar

Feature | 03/27/2019

5 Tips for Nailing a Phone Screen

I’m a millennial, and I hate talking on the phone. In other news, the sky is blue. It’s not that I’m afraid of talking on the phone—I do it. I just don’t like it. And I don’t like it because I find there’s a disconnect. In an email, you’ve got pretty much all the time in the world to get your point across, use the right words, and strike the right tone. And in person, you can read a person’s expressions and body language to get a sense of how the conversation is going, which is ideal in an interview scenario. A phone call has none of that—both you and your conversation partner are just disembodied voices.

The phone screen or phone interview is often the first hurdle that you need to clear in getting a job but, because you can’t really see how a person is responding to your conversation, it adds another layer of removal from the situation and thus another level of anxiety. Here, I’ll get into some ways you can set yourself up for success during a phone screen.

1. Housekeeping

No, don’t clean your house. (Although, in a Skype interview, you’ll probably want to do that—or at least the space directly behind you.) I just mean make sure you take care of all the nuts and bolts. Find a quiet space to take the call (i.e., kick your roommates or your kids out of the room), charge your phone, and make sure you’ve taken it off “Do Not Disturb” mode from the movies last night. I know this sounds like really simple advice that no one could possibly need reminding of—but have you ever forgotten to pack your deodorant for vacation? Exactly. So just double check—nothing could be more embarrassing than your phone going dead right as you’re saying that your personal motto is “Be prepared.”

2. Don’t Chew Gum. Do Take Names.

Listen up, hiring manager: I’m here to kick butt, take names, and chew bubblegum. And I’m all out of bubblegum.

I’m sorry, I had to fit that in here somewhere. For real, though—you better be all out of bubblegum during a phone (or any) interview. No gum, no food, and ideally no drinks, but I won’t make a hard-and-fast rule about it. The person you’re talking to can absolutely hear you masticating on the other end of the line, regardless of how sneaky you think you’re being.

And, to fully justify my reference, be sure to get the name and contact info of your interviewer. One, it makes it that much easier to follow up after the interview. And two, when you go in for an in-person interview, it’ll be nice to have that person’s name at your disposal rather than waiting anxiously for them to reintroduce themselves.

3. Use a Crib Sheet

It’s not cheating, it’s using your resources. This is one instance in which a phone screen is actually awesome—you can take as many notes as you want beforehand and, as long as you’re not rustling pages, you can reference them all you like. I do this constantly—I jot down the company’s important clients and business partners, the names of people in my potential department, and a little blurb about me for the dreaded “Tell me about yourself” question. For one, writing it all down makes me feel more prepared beforehand. But it also makes for easy referencing if my mind goes totally blank in the interview. Just make sure that if you do write out answers to questions, you’re not just reading off your notes. Think of them like index cards for a speech: They’re there to remind you of your main points, but you shouldn’t be entirely dependent on them.

4. Be Comfortable—Even If “Comfortable” Is a Little Weird

It’s probably for the best that I don’t make too many phone calls—I’d wear a meandering path in the floor of my apartment. It’s not even an anxiety thing, exactly. I just wander. If you’re a phone pacer, that’s fine—pace! Use wild hand gestures! Do what you gotta do to burn off nerves. I know it’s a little nerve-racking not being able to see your interviewer’s face, but they also can’t see you—take advantage of that.

That said, don’t get too comfortable. Even though your interviewer can’t see you, you should definitely get up, get dressed in something semi-professional, do your hair, and all that before taking the call. It’ll help you get into the mindset of making an impression.

5. Take Notes

Pencils ready, y’all. Remember what I was saying about taking down your interviewer’s contact info? You should also be writing down the main points of what they say. As the first step in the interviewing process, phone screens are often quite informative—this is your chance to get a good feel for the company, for the qualities needed in the position, for the personality of at least this potential member of your team, things like that. This is important info, and while you shouldn’t be hyper-focused on writing everything down, make sure you jot down the most important points. It’ll help you when you go in for the in-person interview—you’ll be able to demonstrate that you were listening, and you’ll know the notes to hit on the second round.


Read more here.

Feature | 10/04/2019

White Rock Falls Hike

Graduate students from every cohort stepped away from their work to hike White Oak Canyon trails, one of the most popular trails in Central Virginia. 

Feature | 09/20/2019

2019 Orientation of New Students

We are delighted to welcome the 2019 cohort to the graduate program. Their rigorous orientation included the ritual Econ Grad Soccer Match and Welcome Party, pictured below. The soccer match, where current and new students go head to head, had a particularly fine turn-out iboth in the number of players and the number of women who participated (yes!). Even Admissions Director, Professor Cosar (and new father), jumped in. 

Elzinga Flash Seminar

Feature | 01/08/2019

3 reasons you’re experiencing college burnout (& how to deal)

The stress. The anxiety. The worry. All of us have those moments where we’re completely overwhelmed by the amount of work college demands. While we try our best to finish everything as quickly (and as accurately) as possible, we sometimes digress into a state of despair and self-doubt when our hard work isn’t giving us the results we want. At some point, we begin feeling so helpless and depressed that we retreat into our shell, away from our peers and the people who care about us the most. We’re frustrated, confused, lonely, and don’t really know what to do. Eventually, with everything piling on top of us one after the other, we snap.

College can be a tough time for a lot of  students. Whether you’re trying to fit in or trying to survive classes, I think we can all agree that college life isn’t perfect. However, there comes a time when things just don’t feel good and you’re not feeling the same way towards things as you used to. Sure, everything seems fine but you’re just not happy with where you’re at right now. You’re exhausted and unmotivated; you just want the semester to end now. Feeling stressed out is one thing, but feeling burnout is a whole other issue.

Pressure and Expectations

Entering college, I think a lot of us unintentionally place a large amount of pressure on ourselves. We worked unbelievably hard in high school to get where we are today, and so as soon as we enter college we expect ourselves to start off strong. At first, things seem like they’re going fine (and they are), but once we get deeper into the semester we’re not feeling as confident as we did going into the semester.

I think one of the worst things to feel in college is disappointment. Imagine this: You’re in a class working hard. You stay up late to work on assignments and study for exams. As you’re going through the semester, you notice your grades aren’t as good as you want them. You then work and study as hard as you can. Nothing improves. Getting this feeling is absolutely frustrating and disappointing and can certainly upset many people, including myself.

Look, I may not know much about each and every student’s college experience, but from what I know, hard work does eventually pay off. You’re probably going to feel immense pressure to do well in all of your classes, especially if you excelled in all of your classes in high school. But this isn’t high school. There are people around you who have worked just as hard to get where they are today and deserve to be there. It sucks when people are showing off their 4.0 GPA’s or bragging about how well they did on that last test. However, the truth is, none of that matters because you are who YOU are. Do the best that YOU can and that’s what counts.


Finding the right group of people is hard, especially for introverts like myself. You think, “Oh there’s thousands of other freshman who don’t know many people, I’m bound to be friends with one of them.” This is a good thought, but maybe not realistic.

I know many other people disagree, but I think that finding friends in college can be extremely difficult. There are probably going to be a lot of people you meet within the first few weeks of classes as everyone begins the new semester. However, once those first few weeks are over it seems as if everyone has their own little group and sometimes you get left out of those groups of people.

Now before you accuse me of lacking faith in the friendliness of other people, I’m not saying that people intentionally form their own group of friends to single people out. Rather, I think it’s difficult for some people to maintain contact with others because of their lack of connection. Basically what I’m trying to say is that it’s hard to keep up with people when their schedules are so different. You meet so many people within the first few weeks of class, but let’s face it: how many of them are you going to remember or talk with by the end of the semester?

Nevertheless, finding people you feel the most comfortable with is important in college. Whether you like hanging around people or not, try pushing yourself to go out and meet new people. The best way to make friends is through your classes, because you’ll be seeing them on a weekly (if not daily) basis. If you’re still having trouble making friends, definitely utilize some of the student services your school offers. While they can’t help you make friends, they can definitely help guide you to resources and organizations that cultivate lifelong friendships.

Fitting In

Are you that awkward duck in the middle of the pond? Yup, that’s me alright. I think one of the most difficult parts about being in college is feeling at ease. With homework assignments and exams galore, there isn’t always a lot of time to think about where you’re at in terms of fitting in. However, it can sometimes take a toll on people as it did for me. I felt like I was sort of fitting in with the general population of students, but somehow I felt a personal disconnect from everyone. I talked with people from time to time, but it just didn’t feel the same as high school.

If you’re a college student still transitioning from high school to college, there are plenty of other people who are still having trouble fitting in. I have to admit, even though my school has a smaller student body than some other schools, I sometimes feel like I’m just there. I go to school, do homework, and take tests. That’s it. I know this is probably hard to hear, but things take time. You’re still transitioning, and this feeling is absolutely normal. As you go through the semester, you’ll likely find your way through things and be able to finally enjoy your college experience.

The College Burnout

College can be a rewarding experience for many people interested in learning and growing in a different environment. Compared to high school, the possibilities seem endless. However, college life can be difficult for some people as well, particularly those who are still transitioning from high school to college. While college can bring exciting new opportunities to students, it can also provide additional stress and anxiety with the amount of work and energy demanded.

If you’re feeling college burnout at any time, take some time to relax. Yes, I realize that you have things to work on and study for, but let’s be honest: are you really going to be productive when you’re feeling that bad? Don’t push yourself over the edge; it’s just not worth it.

On another note, try not to give yourself a hard time when it comes to grades. Although academics is central to the college experience, don’t allow yourself to become involved only in academics. You’re going to make mistakes. It’s going to suck. But yet, we’re all human. No one’s perfect. You can continue to beat yourself down over your grades, but what good is that going to do? There’s so much more to life than just grades. Your happiness comes first. You might argue that good grades equal greater job opportunities and more money. Look at the expectations you’ve created. They’re nothing unreasonable or anything, but realize what you’re doing to yourself. You’re tired. You’re unhappy. You feel like giving up. Is this the way to live?

I’m not saying that you shouldn’t pay attention to your academic performance in college, but make sure that you give yourself some credit once in a while. You’re in college. You have an opportunity that others can only dream of. Be proud of yourself for all you’ve achieved. You’ve made it this far. Give yourself a pat on the back and feel proud of everything you’ve done thus far. You deserve it.

College burnout isn’t enjoyable and can almost always affect your college life. That being said, there are other things that can also hinder you from succeeding and being happy in college. To be honest, I’m really struggling in college right now, not just academically. There are days that I feel like I’m at the top of the world and then there are others when I’m in the gutter of despair. You’ve probably heard of this a million times, but college is what you make of it. Be happy, be sad, be angry – that’s your choice. However, know that you deserve to be there, and don’t ever doubt that. Sure, you might have doubts about why you’re there but think about this: you’re there already. Shouldn’t you make the most of what you have now?

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Feature | 09/11/2018

Welcome to Our New Graduate Students

The UVA Department of Economics is delighted to welcome its incoming class of graduate students. The cohort of 20 students is equally divided with regards to gender. Fifteen of the 22 are international students, 9 of whom earned degrees at other universities in the U.S. Each student in the cohort has at least one previous degree in economics, if not two, and several had a second undergraduate major in math or statistics. They bring with them a wide range of real world experience: one student is completing a position as a Fulbright Scholar at the Free Market Foundation of South Africa; several have completed internships with places such as the Korea Economic Research Institute,  the Harvard Kennedy School of Government, and the Yale School of Management; and others have held professional positions--as economists, research assistants, or analysts--at organizations such as the Bank of Korea, the University of Wisconsin Hospital Emergency Medicine Research Group, the DC Federal Reserve Board, and the NERA Economic Consulting firm.

Elzinga Flash Seminar

Feature | 08/23/2017


"It’s terrifying to know that the person you’re speaking to is weighing your every word—and could hold the power to change your future. This is why interviews can be so stressful, and why sometimes it can be hard not to blurt out the first thing that comes to mind. No matter how long you prep for the interview, it’s actual practice that gets one better at interviewing. And while there are many things you should say in a job interview, it can be harder to focus on the things not to say. We’ve got the seven things to steer clear of mentioning if you really want that job." -Kristina Rudic


Click here to read the rest of the article 

Hamilton Angevine

Feature | 12/11/2018

Ben Hamilton Finds Conference Presentations Excellent Preparation for the Job Market

On October 6, at the 74th Midwest International Trade Conference at Vanderbilt University,  I presented my job market paper, “Learning, Externalities, and Export Dynamics,” in a 25-minute talk to an audience of economists studying international trade. In November, I presented my job market paper twice at different venues in Washington D.C.  First, at the 88th Southern Economic Association annual meeting, where I received constructive feedback on a condensed 15-minute version of my talk from students and professors of varied concentrations. Next, at the second Mid-Atlantic International Trade Workshop, hosted by the Federal Reserve Board, I presented a longer, 40-minute version of my talk and benefited from helpful comments and discussion with other trade economists.  Having the opportunity to present my talk in a variety of formats, receive questions from audiences unfamiliar with me and my work, and network with many people in my field was a valuable experience, particularly as I prepare to go on the job market during the next few months.  

Elzinga Flash Seminar

Feature | 02/07/2017


Another Career Fair Approaches! New Job Postings! Economics Career Forum!

Elzinga Flash Seminar

Feature | 09/05/2022

The Best Outfits for Job Interviews

Articles from The Balance Careers, written by Alison Doyle updated on February 13, 2020 and November 11, 2021.


What's the best outfit to wear to a job interview? The answer will vary depending on the type of job and company you're interviewing with. You always want to dress to make the best impression, but the outfit you choose depends on whether you're interviewing at a company with a formal dress code, at a casual startup, or for an informal summer job or internship.

If you wear a suit to an interview for a camp counselor, or a T-shirt to an interview at a bank, it'll send the message that you don't truly understand what's involved in the role. 

Find out what to wear (and what not to wear) for interviews at every type of company

Professional / Business Interview Attire

Generally, a job interview calls for you to wear professional, or business, attire.

For men, this might mean a suit jacket and slacks with a shirt and tie or a sweater and button-down. For women, a blouse and dress pants or a statement dress is appropriate. For gender neutral attire, click here. 

You can also incorporate some modern style trends into your outfit. All interviewees should consider color when selecting an interview outfit and avoid wearing anything too bright or flashy that will distract the hiring manager.

Interview Outfits for Women

The more important thing to consider when you're dressing for a job interview is that you should look professional and polished regardless of the type of position you're seeking.

Even though your interview attire depends on the role you're applying for, no matter what the position, you should go to the interview looking neat, tidy, and well-dressed. Here's how to make the best impression at every interview you go on.

Interview Outfits for Men

It can be challenging to put a professional interview outfit together. Here are some basic tips for men on how to dress for an interview, including what colors to wear, whether to wear a tie (and what kind), and more.

Gender Neutral Attire

If your day-to-day attire doesn’t conform to a traditional gender norm, your interview clothing doesn’t have to either.  

Non-Professional / Business Casual Interview Attire

If you have a job interview in a more informal work environment, you might wear a business casual outfit. Business casual outfits are less formal than a suit, but they are also more professional and polished than, say, a T-shirt and shorts or a sundress and sandals.

Of course, make sure you know the dress code before you assume that business casual is acceptable. If you aren’t sure, call the office and ask the administrative coordinator, or contact the person who scheduled the interview and ask them for advice.

Always dress a bit more professionally than the average employee at the company. If everyone is wearing shorts and T-shirts, for example, you might wear khakis and a Polo shirt or button-down.

Casual Interview Attire

If you have an interview at a startup company, nix the head-to-toe formal business attire. You want to look appropriate and professional, but not too formal.

Rather than showing up in a black suit and dress shoes, opt for something that is relaxed but still presentable: relaxed-fit khakis, dark-wash jeans, and a nice top, for example.

College Job Interview Attire

Make sure to dress professionally when interviewing for a professional job or internship as a college student. It'll show that you'll know how to behave in a professional manner if you're hired. 

Less formal attire is acceptable when interviewing for campus jobs and more informal workplace jobs. However, you still want to dress professionally for most positions, even if they are entry-level. Review these tips for college women and college men on what to wear to an interview, as well as what to wear for an interview for an internship. Gender-neutral attire tips may be found here.

Internship Interview Attire

Internships are an important part of career development, and as with any job, acing your interview is one part of getting the position you want. Making a great first impression–coming across as polished, professional, and attentive–is important when it comes to your internship search.

Here's what to wear for an internship interview based on whether the company environment is formal, casual, or somewhere in between.

Summer Job Interview Attire

Are you interviewing for a summer job? Typically, these jobs are more casual and do not require professional attire. You can skip the suit. However, you still want to look polished and professional.

Here are tips on what to wear to make the best impression, including interview attire for male and female applicants, what to bring with you, and how to dress for a casual interview.

Warm Weather Interview Attire

Do you have an interview in the hot summer months? There are a few things you can do to look professional but still feel cool in a job interview.

Review tips on what to wear for a warm-weather interview depending on the work environment and type of job.

How to Choose Interview Accessories

When wearing accessories to an interview, less is more. Choose accessories that will enhance your interview attire, not overwhelm it. 

Best Job Interview Hairstyles

There are lots of ways to style your hair for a job interview. While some options are trendy and others are more traditional, remember that your hairstyle should not distract the employer. You will want your hair to be professional and polished, like your entire outfit.

Here are the best job interview hairstyles for short, medium-length, and long hair. 

How to Do Your Makeup for a Job Interview

Like your hair, your makeup should not distract the interviewer. This is not the time for bold lipstick or a glittery eye shadow. Instead, keep makeup subtle and unobtrusive. 

Check out these interview makeup do's and don'ts before you get ready to interview.

What Not to Wear on an Interview

An unprofessional outfit can distract an interviewer from seeing your great qualities.

Here's what not to wear when you are interviewing for a new job.

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Feature | 05/09/2023

Still Seeking a Summer Internship? Here Are Some Ideas

From the Muse: 


Find Part-Time, Full-Time, or Freelance Work at a Company

There are plenty of organizations that don’t have official internship programs but likely could use some extra assistance. Focus first on these questions: What’s your desired industry? What role do you hope to get? If you don’t know exactly, what position would you like to try, even just to determine whether it’s a good fit? If you like coding and think you might like working for a small tech startup, for example, isolate companies that fit that description and see whether they work with freelancers, temps, and/or part-time employees—if so, they might be interested in working with you, too.

Once you’ve narrowed your interests and done some research, make a list of companies you’re reaching out to, and start connecting directly. Sometimes there’s an HR contact on the website or you might find someone who’s in a managerial role on LinkedIn. Try to find a specific person’s email, and politely reach out.

Tim Birmingham, a career coach for both private clients and students at St. Michael’s College, lays out a basic email structure:

  • Write a brief introduction and reason for interest in the company. This should be specific and target each company.
  • Highlight relevant experience, skills, education, and qualifications for what you think they might need. This doesn’t need to be a complete summary; keep it short and strategic.
  • End with a good call to action, including availability to talk by phone and contact information. For example, you might write: “I’d like to explore the value I could offer XYZ this summer and am available to talk by phone this week at your convenience.”

This format can work any time you want to reach out for a potential opportunity, so long as you tailor it to the person and context.


Complete a Microinternship (or Several!)

As remote work and gig work have increased in the workforce, microinternships have increased in popularity. Microinternships are small, project-based internships that encompass about five to 40 hours of work but can often offer payment. “This gives students something project-based to get actual experience, develop skills, and have something to show for it at the end,” Slusher says. In practice, you might be writing a 1,200-1,400 word article for a company’s marketing blog, identifying 25 qualified candidates for a role a company’s hoping to fill, or studying competitors’ social media accounts and writing reports identifying what they’re doing successfully.

These microinternships can usually be done remotely and if you don’t like the work, it doesn’t usually last long. You can do several of them over the summer—which can help you explore roles, companies, and industries you’re considering—and it’s great for building your professional network with hiring managers. 

You can find microinternship opportunities on sites including Parker Dewey and MindSumo.


Get a Local Summer Job

Seasonal industries and other local businesses might need short-term workers. Never underestimate the value of working at an ice cream shop, a nearby museum that draws tourists, a venue that needs caterers for events, a local clothing shop looking for retail associates, or even a babysitting gig for a neighbor’s kids.

This might not sound as exciting as a prestigious internship but it will add to your skill set and show that you’ve developed a work ethic. In case you’re skeptical that this kind of summer job will be resume-worthy even if it’s not connected to your major, Baska emphasizes that the key is to bring the right attitude to the work, and that “skills from those sorts of experiences can be translated to a future internship or full-time job (think communication, teamwork, professionalism, etc.).” Slusher says he works with students who have this type of experience all the time: “It’s all about thinking about the skills you’ve used there. Let’s communicate that in a way employers will value.”

To land a local job, you can either try to find a contact form if there’s a website, walk in with a resume, or call the person who would hire you if you’re able to find their phone number. And once you’re in the door, you could potentially ask to do something more specific to what you’d actually like to learn, from updating a website to developing a sales plan.


Assist a Researcher or Another Professional

You could help a professor or researcher at your school (perhaps you like their work or have taken one of their classes) or assist a professional outside your institution whose work you admire. If that individual writes papers and books, for example, you could ask if they need help with background research, proofreading, fact-checking, transcribing, or completing other tasks for their latest project. Or if they’re a web developer with their own freelance or consulting business, perhaps you could help route client inquiries, do some coding or other site setup tasks, conduct research, or write up a few case studies or testimonials to feature on their site.

You’ll need to do some proactive outreach. Use a modified version of the template Birmingham lays out above, demonstrating interest and expertise in the specific subject matter and your ability and willingness to help. See if you can figure out where their need is greatest and try to fill in the blanks—help them see the value you can provide, and make it easy for them to have you jump right in.

You may have to reach out to more than one prospect here, since some academics and other professionals may receive multiple requests like these, some may be too overwhelmed to respond, and some may just not see how to direct you appropriately.


Work on an Independent Project

This requires perhaps the most work on your part but could also be highly fulfilling. Think of this as akin to a senior year thesis or independent study. Could you develop an idea in an area you find fascinating? Or can you build on a topic you’ve touched upon in class but haven’t been able to pursue in depth? If you took a course on digital privacy and are eager to learn more, for example, a summer project might delve into the long-term impacts of recent data breaches based on available news sources. Your goal could be writing a paper, putting together a presentation, building a diagram, or testing a hypothesis and recording the results. 

It might be helpful to consult with a faculty member to make sure your time isn’t wasted and determine what your research question should be—and you can even ask if they’ll advise you throughout the process—but it will be entirely on you to see the project through.

The key here is to set up a schedule and stick to it even if the hours need to change over time. “[Students should] pretend like they’re going to work every day. [They should] have set start/end times and have a quiet space where they can get work done,” Baska says. “They can talk with a friend or family member about goals they hope to achieve and give them updates—that will help them stay accountable.”


Do Online Coursework

It may be too late to sign up for a summer course at your college or university, but you can always turn to massive open online classes (MOOCs), some of which can be taken anytime or have open enrollment. “Many likely require a subscription, but students should check with their institution because it’s possible the school has a subscription so that students can access these classes for free or at a reduced cost,” Baska says. (EdX is one such platform that provides memberships for participating universities.)

There are also platforms where students can learn all sorts of specific skills: programming languages, web design, social media, and even drawing and painting. Employers love to see skill development. “The vast majority of employers hiring for the vast majority of entry-level positions are looking more at the skills you have than they are at your major or even GPA,” Slusher says. “It’s all about skill development and how you articulate the skills that you have and how you’ve used them.”

Read More: 14 Best Sites for Taking Online Classes That’ll Boost Your Skills and Get You Ahead



Nonprofits don’t necessarily have the funds to pay an entry-level worker or summer intern, but they often need volunteers. You could work for organizations such as your local pet shelter, a food bank, a tutoring service for kids who need it, an organization that supports civics in the classroom, or a group that dresses women who need business-appropriate clothing. The work itself can range from talking to potential donors and encouraging them to give money to working on marketing campaigns to spreading awareness about a particular initiative. You could work directly with the animals or people who need your help or volunteer virtually to help an organization outside of your immediate area. When there’s a cause you care about, this can be quite fulfilling work.

If you have a nearby nonprofit in mind, check their website, give them a call, or stop by to inquire about volunteer opportunities. Your university’s community service office can also help since, much like your career center, it may be open during the summer and willing to talk to you about available opportunities. 

Read More: This Is Exactly How to List Volunteer Work on Your Resume


Conduct Informational Interviews

This is an even lower level of commitment than asking someone for a job or microinternship: Simply reach out to someone who’s doing work you want to do and ask for 30 minutes or an hour of their time to tell you about what they do every day and what advice they’d share with someone who wants to follow a similar path. You might be surprised how happy people are to share, especially if they like their work.

“Tapping into a school’s alumni network is an excellent way to start with this,” Baska says. Plus, you can turn to connections you might have through friends and family members (friends of your parents, parents of your friends, etc.), supervisors and colleagues you met at previous internships, and even people you don’t know at all but whose work intrigues you. You may need to reach out to a few people before you land on someone who has the time and bandwidth to chat. You can also do multiple informational interviews over the course of a summer to gather in-depth insight into your chosen career or to explore a multitude of potential career paths.

Even though this might not sound as impactful as summer work, you’re still showing a commitment to learn from others, ruling out jobs you don’t like, and honing your focus. You can also set up informational interviews in conjunction with a summer job, independent project, or other options on this list. 

Read More: 3 Steps to a Perfect Informational Interview


Job Shadow

Interested in a certain kind of job theoretically but unclear what it would actually mean to do it in practice? You might benefit from seeing for yourself. “Some schools do formal job shadowing days, or you could explore doing it on an informal basis,” Slusher says. For example, if you really hit it off with someone at an informational interview—and it’s safe to do so—ask if you can join them in their workplace for the day. 

This isn’t just about seeing what a job is like day-to-day: You’re also building your professional network. You can count anyone you’ve shadowed as a connection, so make sure you ask to shadow politely, be gracious if they say no, and thank them effusively if they do give you the opportunity.

“Most jobs are not found through job boards—we need to leverage the people in our networks as part of our search,” Slusher says. “[The summer] is a great time to be building connections in a professional capacity. You don’t need an immediate return—plant the seed, then when you’re ready to job search those job connections could be critical.”


Pursue Personal Creative Work

If you’ve been eager to explore your creative side and haven’t had the chance to do it during the semester—or if you’re in a creative field and you’d like to have a portfolio of work to show potential employers—there are a ton of ways to scratch that itch. You could start a blog or a vlog, create a podcast either alone or with a friend, do some creative writing for yourself or to submit to a writing competition, make a series of paintings or multimedia collages on a theme, or do some other form of creative work. The sky’s the limit, but treat it in the same way you would an independent project: Set up a specific goal, give yourself time limits, hold yourself accountable, and aim to have an end product.

Know that by taking on a creative project, you’re also working on your grit and resilience—especially if it turns out to be tougher than you expected. “Through the process you can develop a mindset of: I’m learning from this process, here’s why I’m doing it, here’s where my inspiration comes from, here’s what happens when I hit a wall,” Slusher says. “Even if...at the end it’s not what you thought it would be, what did you learn?”


A Few More Tips To Make the Most of Your Time

So you’ve settled on one or a few internship alternatives and you have the beginnings of a plan. What now? The experts we spoke to had a few more tips to balance productivity and self-care.

  • Develop and refine your LinkedIn profile. Take the time to ask yourself questions like: What really interests me? What skills are really motivating to me when I get to use them? What roles, companies, and industries do I think I might want to target next time I’m searching for an internship or job? This is the perfect time to build or update your LinkedIn profile with the answers to those questions in mind and add all the connections you’re meeting this summer. (Not sure where to start? Check out our best LinkedIn tips!)
  • Start small and build on your work. It could look and sound like this: “If I spend one hour a day working on my resume, then LinkedIn, by the end of two weeks I should see some serious progress,” Slusher says. “We really underestimate breaking things down into much smaller, manageable steps. And summer provides the opportunity to build in some fun reward systems.” Do you want to have a game night with your friends? Take a day trip to the beach? Set up clear and concrete “prizes” for when you’ve completed your work.
  • Get help from your school’s career center. Most university career centers are still open during the summer, and Baska says they’re always invested in helping students. This could involve mock interviews, a resume review, a skills analysis, or help crafting a future job search strategy. They can even help students find “people at organizations and/or alumni who may be able to help them as they are exploring projects” or while they’re working on them.
  • Practice self-care. Build rest into your process and be gracious with yourself as you work, Slusher says. No matter what you end up doing, it’s normal for you to not meet your goals sometimes. Treat yourself as a friend: How would you love and support someone if they fell short? Learn from the failure and take important lessons from it.
  • Stay positive. “It’s competitive out there,” Birmingham says. “Be proactive and look forward. Didn’t land an internship this summer? Start focusing on finding one this fall.”

Katherine J. Igoe

Katherine J. Igoe is a full-time Boston-based freelance writer and part-time contributing editor at Marie Claire. Previous to freelancing, she worked in education and higher ed, and loves helping students make important academic decisions. Igoe: “I go to the store,” not “Her huge ego.” You can follow her, ask questions, and suggest story ideas on Instagram or Twitter.


Feature | 11/26/2019

UVA Alum Jose Fernandez Elected President of the American Society of Hispanic Economists

The announcement, made on Twitter, can be found here: https://mobile.twitter.com/ASHE_ASSA/status/1197849863582552069 .

Feature | 12/01/2021

Yutong Chen Presents at 2021 SEA Conference

Yutong Chen, a fourth-year graduate student, presented her paper at the Southern Economic Association’s 2021 Meeting in Houston, TX. The paper, “Does the Gig Economy Discriminate? Evidence from Physicians in China,” finds that patients discriminate against female physicians, which leads to gender gaps on an online healthcare platform. Additionally, the platform’s ranking algorithm exacerbates gender gaps via the feedback loop.

Elzinga Flash Seminar

Feature | 09/17/2018

4 Common Interview Questions - Including the Tough Ones!

Interview invitations should really come with a warning: Strong feelings of excitement changing suddenly into dread are imminent upon receiving this invitation. 

Career counselors (and yes, I’m guilty of this, too) will frequently say, “Oh, it’s a two-way street. You’re interviewing them as much as they’re interviewing you.” And while that is partially true—you should definitely use the interview as a way to gauge whether or not you want to work for a company—there is still a power imbalance. Ultimately, the hiring manager will get to decide first whether you’ll get an offer. So, it’s understandable to be nervous. 

But fear not! With a little preparation, you’ll know exactly what to say to impress. To get you started, here are four tricky, but common, interview questions and how to tackle them....Click here for more: https://www.themuse.com/advice/4-common-interview-questions-and-4-perfec...


Elzinga Flash Seminar

Feature | 02/22/2022

ECO Article: The Value of an MBA Degree from the WSJ

A Graduate Degree That Pays Off: The M.B.A.

A Wall Street Journal analysis of federal student loan data found 98% of programs leave students with manageable debt loads

The Columbia University campus in New York.


By Patrick Thomas Follow  and Andrea Fuller Follow

Oct. 27, 2021 5:30 am ET

Borrowing money to go back to graduate school can be a surefire way to get mired in student debt. But one master’s degree appears to pay off for many people who finance their education: the M.B.A.

At about 98% of universities that offer master’s of business administration programs, graduates typically made more money two years out of school than they had borrowed, a Wall Street Journal analysis of federal student loan data for nearly 600 programs found. That stands in contrast to law schools, where roughly 6% of programs had graduates with higher median earnings than debt in the same time frame.

Jenny Le and her husband, Quan Nguyen


Jenny Le, 29, enrolled in 2018 at Columbia Business School, where total tuition and fees surpass $160,000 for the two-year M.B.A. She tapped savings and scholarships and borrowed $38,000 to attend, assuming she would take several years to pay down the debt after graduating. Thanks in part to a signing bonus she got with her new role as an associate in corporate strategy and development for Teachers Insurance and Annuity Association of America in New York, she cleared the debt in six months.

“I thought it would be worth it in the long run, but wasn’t sure about the short-term,” Ms. Le said of her degree. “I’ve seen so many others my age struggle with debt payment. It was a better investment than I was expecting.”

Many people who pursue their M.B.A. do it for the promise of a bigger payday, the ability to pivot to a new industry or launch themselves onto an executive path. The high sticker price for some programs, which can range from $100,000 to $250,000 or more once living expenses are factored in on top of tuition and fees, can turn off prospective students, as can the two-year career break required to go back to campus.


The federal government allows graduate students to take out a fixed amount of relatively low-interest loans. After that, students must turn to higher-interest Grad Plus loans, which have no cap. Thousands of M.B.A. students take out six-figure loans every year to help finance tuition, fees and living expenses. A small number of M.B.A. candidates at some elite schools rely more on private loans with lower interest rates. The debt figures the Journal examined don’t include private loans, and the salary data reflects only students who take out federal loans.

Many M.B.A. candidates have experience in the professional workforce, so the degree often boosts their existing career trajectory. Traditionally, some students have come from more affluent backgrounds and people who already work in finance or other high-paying sectors have tended to gravitate to the degree, which has made the pool of M.B.A. candidates a financially healthy group, though business schools say they have been trying to expand their pool of applicants.

Juliet Lawrence


When Juliet Lawrence, 37, graduated from the University of Michigan’s Ross School of Business with her M.B.A. in 2013, she decided not to immediately pay off her more than $108,000 in loans. She opted to put her higher salary and bonuses at Dow Inc. DOW -0.07% into her 401(k) and the stock market while making loan payments. Ms. Lawrence, now a senior finance manager at Dow, paid off the last of her debt in 2020.

“From a net worth perspective, you get more return from that than just straight paying off loans. There was no real rush,” Ms. Lawrence said of investing instead of wiping out loans quickly. “Your M.B.A. pays off, but where are you going to get more growth?”

Not everybody who attends a well-known school catapults into a new income bracket. Bradley Hoefer, 31, borrowed about $110,000 to get his M.B.A. from Tulane University’s Freeman School of Business in 2020; he already had about $85,000 in loans for his undergraduate degree. He estimates it could take him 20 years to pay down the debt.

Mr. Hoefer had hoped his M.B.A. would help him leave banking, the sector where he worked for five years, and enter the videogame industry. After a year of job hunting and working part-time to make ends meet, he recently took a full-time job at Citigroup Inc. C -0.44% in Buffalo, N.Y., with a remote start from Ormond Beach, Fla., where he currently resides. His salary of $60,000 a year is a modest increase over the salary he drew before graduate school.

“It was worth it for the experience,” Mr. Hoefer said. “I think there is a little false advertising with respect to some M.B.A.s. People expect to increase their salaries from $60,000 to $120,000.”

Paulo Goes, dean of Tulane’s business school, said the class of 2020 has had a particularly tough time because many companies stopped recruiting M.B.A. job seekers during the pandemic, which is reflected in graduates’ placement and salary.

Debt-to-income ratio

A ratio above one means a typical student would graduate with more debt than income two years after graduation. A ratio below one means the typical graduate has income greater than debt.

Adelphi University $32,547 $70,296 0.46
Alabama A & M University $46,348 $43,798 1.06
Albany State University $34,750 $38,289 0.91
Albertus Magnus College $41,000 $57,318 0.72
Alvernia University $37,027 $60,878 0.61
Alverno College $30,691 $63,005 0.49
American InterContinental University $35,281 $45,244 0.78
American International College $33,000 $52,107 0.63
American Public University System $33,178 $66,728 0.5
American University $78,230 $99,458 0.79
Anderson University $30,425 $61,020 0.5
Anderson University $37,885 $65,238 0.58
Antioch University-Midwest $41,000 $62,012 0.66
Appalachian State University $26,005 $49,084 0.53
Arizona State University-Tempe $50,795 $98,650 0.52
Arkansas State University-Main Campus $30,749 $57,318 0.54
Ashford University $41,000 $51,179 0.8
Ashland University $22,700 $73,035 0.31
Assumption College $20,701 $64,572 0.32
Auburn University $41,000 $114,892 0.36
Augsburg University $35,500 $72,602 0.49
Augusta University $37,967 $66,821 0.57
Aurora University $33,828 $65,238 0.52
Averett University $38,500 $63,898 0.6
Avila University $39,782 $59,969 0.66
Azusa Pacific University $39,000 $59,425 0.66
Babson College $51,316 $103,078 0.5
Baker College $37,490 $61,144 0.61
Baker University $37,931 $67,473 0.56
Baldwin Wallace University $38,205 $86,129 0.44
Barry University $51,250 $51,482 1
Bay Path University $29,176 $63,005 0.46
Baylor University $43,366 $96,457 0.45
Belhaven University $41,000 $46,673 0.88
Bellevue University $38,224 $71,495 0.54
Benedictine University $34,608 $71,661 0.48
Bentley University $35,096 $89,968 0.39
Bethel University $34,500 $80,858 0.43
Binghamton University $26,359 $68,443 0.39
Bluffton University $26,660 $57,995 0.46
Boise State University $30,750 $74,786 0.41
Boston College $47,630 $115,060 0.41
Boston University $46,446 $106,688 0.44
Bowling Green State University-Main Campus $31,788 $79,688 0.4
Brandeis University $40,647 $72,214 0.56
Brandman University $46,309 $78,029 0.59
Brenau University $56,878 $60,173 0.95
Brigham Young University-Provo $41,000 $119,642 0.34
CUNY Bernard M Baruch College $40,956 $101,518 0.4
CUNY Brooklyn College $18,899 $52,107 0.36
CUNY Graduate School and University Center $20,000 $80,964 0.25
CUNY Lehman College $17,000 $56,157 0.3
California Baptist University $22,098 $73,075 0.3
California State Polytechnic University-Pomona $37,948 $85,357 0.45
California State University-Bakersfield $27,333 $71,015 0.39
California State University-Channel Islands $30,750 $64,990 0.47
California State University-Chico $27,133 $50,856 0.53
California State University-Dominguez Hills $29,584 $69,338 0.43
California State University-East Bay $33,635 $79,838 0.42
California State University-Fresno $35,795 $90,049 0.4
California State University-Fullerton $27,750 $80,779 0.34
California State University-Long Beach $41,000 $67,660 0.61
California State University-Monterey Bay $41,000 $79,389 0.52
California State University-Northridge $31,963 $88,907 0.36
California State University-Sacramento $35,381 $73,739 0.48
California State University-San Bernardino $41,000 $72,214 0.57
California State University-San Marcos $34,954 $74,576 0.47
California State University-Stanislaus $30,200 $73,949 0.41
California University of Pennsylvania $26,004 $48,139 0.54
Campbell University $30,000 $54,810 0.55
Canisius College $35,245 $65,387 0.54
Capella University $43,094 $61,281 0.7
Capital University $25,009 $83,177 0.3
Cardinal Stritch University $41,000 $66,461 0.62
Carlow University $32,419 $60,623 0.54
Carnegie Mellon University $82,000 $133,383 0.62
Case Western Reserve University $70,520 $85,860 0.82
Centenary University $34,167 $79,755 0.43
Central Michigan University $31,976 $65,180 0.49
Chadron State College $20,988 $73,949 0.28
Chaminade University of Honolulu $26,595 $56,415 0.47
Champlain College $40,922 $73,635 0.56
Chapman University $70,158 $80,459 0.87
Charleston Southern University $33,500 $59,425 0.56
Chatham University $39,601 $58,221 0.68
Christian Brothers University $32,438 $76,460 0.42
Citadel Military College of South Carolina $35,805 $82,123 0.44
City University of Seattle $46,125 $74,200 0.62
Claremont Graduate University $80,616 $61,020 1.32
Clarion University of Pennsylvania $25,625 $72,796 0.35
Clark University $41,000 $64,328 0.64
Clarkson University $35,637 $71,575 0.5
Clayton State University $41,000 $53,894 0.76
Cleary University $35,455 $59,045 0.6
Clemson University $36,101 $74,262 0.49
Cleveland State University $37,309 $65,610 0.57
Coastal Carolina University $25,500 $48,198 0.53
Colorado Christian University $47,009 $66,541 0.71
Colorado State University-Fort Collins $38,934 $80,301 0.49
Colorado State University-Global Campus $39,541 $82,440 0.48
Colorado Technical University-Colorado Springs $41,000 $47,957 0.86
Columbia Southern University $32,433 $58,990 0.55
Columbia University in the City of New York $61,349 $170,426 0.36
Columbus State University $19,714 $51,106 0.39
Concordia University Texas $40,224 $65,131 0.62
Concordia University-Chicago $31,352 $59,576 0.53
Concordia University-Irvine $36,000 $62,012 0.58
Concordia University-Portland $52,759 $59,576 0.89
Concordia University-Saint Paul $34,771 $75,795 0.46
Concordia University-Wisconsin $35,160 $72,462 0.49
Cornell University $100,370 $145,332 0.69
Cornerstone University $29,943 $64,493 0.46
Curry College $41,000 $82,882 0.5
Dallas Baptist University $45,073 $67,324 0.67
Dartmouth College $41,000 $167,295 0.25
Davenport University $34,601 $63,318 0.55
DePaul University $47,997 $100,096 0.48
DeSales University $29,726 $79,284 0.38
DeVry University-Illinois $46,125 $64,686 0.71
Delaware Valley University $30,167 $66,104 0.46
Dominican University $67,373 $55,840 1.21
Duke University $81,299 $148,189 0.55
Duquesne University $40,974 $65,486 0.63
East Carolina University $30,750 $64,493 0.48
East Tennessee State University $26,953 $43,798 0.62
Eastern Illinois University $20,500 $54,386 0.38
Eastern Michigan University $51,250 $66,077 0.78
Eastern Nazarene College $24,000 $57,318 0.42
Eastern New Mexico University-Main Campus $29,772 $62,409 0.48
Eastern University $40,845 $58,402 0.7
Eastern Washington University $26,379 $53,358 0.49
Elmhurst College $27,475 $84,653 0.33
Elon University $38,730 $71,854 0.54
Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University-Daytona Beach $39,906 $75,047 0.53
Emmanuel College $25,504 $83,546 0.31
Emory University $61,500 $134,287 0.46
Evangel University $33,185 $47,650 0.7
Everglades University $32,236 $65,797 0.49
Fairleigh Dickinson University-Metropolitan Campus $30,750 $74,953 0.41
Florida Agricultural and Mechanical University $39,238 $52,107 0.75
Florida Atlantic University $41,000 $59,688 0.69
Florida Gulf Coast University $30,765 $66,821 0.46
Florida Institute of Technology $41,000 $75,787 0.54
Florida International University $57,732 $67,685 0.85
Florida Southern College $35,750 $61,020 0.59
Fontbonne University $50,299 $54,035 0.93
Fordham University $56,586 $113,850 0.5
Fort Hays State University $31,765 $55,286 0.58
Franklin University $37,584 $61,580 0.61
Friends University $35,504 $57,995 0.61
Frostburg State University $23,875 $78,719 0.3
Full Sail University $41,000 $42,905 0.96
Gannon University $30,750 $54,154 0.57
Gardner-Webb University $30,865 $54,748 0.56
George Fox University $41,000 $75,518 0.54
George Mason University $41,000 $105,585 0.39
George Washington University $62,739 $114,046 0.55
Georgetown University $102,713 $127,040 0.81
Georgia Institute of Technology-Main Campus $76,863 $127,034 0.61
Georgia Southern University $20,500 $65,486 0.31
Golden Gate University-San Francisco $46,000 $88,861 0.52
Goldey-Beacom College $20,500 $55,286 0.37
Gonzaga University $47,631 $82,685 0.58
Governors State University $32,015 $73,635 0.44
Grand Canyon University $34,435 $64,265 0.54
Granite State College $23,717 $53,775 0.44
Grantham University $34,239 $60,523 0.57
Gwynedd Mercy University $39,961 $58,402 0.68
Hamline University $42,940 $65,238 0.66
Hampton University $25,316 $63,749 0.4
Harding University $35,491 $67,101 0.53
Herzing University-Madison $41,000 $44,389 0.92
Hodges University $31,750 $56,415 0.56
Hofstra University $64,931 $108,092 0.6
Houston Baptist University $40,384 $80,022 0.51
Howard University $75,985 $76,460 0.99
Hult International Business School $78,837 $67,420 1.17
Husson University $20,500 $58,943 0.35
Idaho State University $20,300 $61,516 0.33
Indiana State University $26,040 $63,005 0.41
Indiana University of Pennsylvania-Main Campus $29,841 $59,726 0.5
Indiana Wesleyan University-Marion $49,187 $66,326 0.74
Iona College $45,443 $70,456 0.65
Iowa State University $28,955 $70,680 0.41
Jackson State University $20,500 $46,087 0.45
James Madison University $32,719 $91,744 0.36
John Brown University $24,772 $74,105 0.33
John Carroll University $26,679 $58,402 0.46
Johns Hopkins University $34,166 $106,421 0.32
Johnson & Wales University-Providence $24,245 $50,677 0.48
Keiser University-Ft Lauderdale $46,196 $39,653 1.17
Kennesaw State University $41,000 $91,949 0.45
Kent State University at Kent $41,000 $73,635 0.56
Kettering University $32,190 $103,746 0.31
Keuka College $39,853 $58,673 0.68
King University $40,721 $53,810 0.76
LIM College $34,816 $43,575 0.8
La Salle University $31,300 $84,100 0.37
Lake Erie College $23,922 $52,733 0.45
Lake Forest Graduate School of Management $39,936 $113,168 0.35
Lakeland University $41,000 $60,689 0.68
Lawrence Technological University $70,000 $89,968 0.78
Le Moyne College $20,500 $56,776 0.36
LeTourneau University $38,750 $67,660 0.57
Lewis University $41,000 $60,071 0.68
Liberty University $34,818 $57,714 0.6
Limestone College $33,212 $55,286 0.6
Lindenwood University $29,256 $52,107 0.56
Lipscomb University $35,680 $63,005 0.57
Long Island University $55,138 $60,623 0.91
Lourdes University $45,136 $55,964 0.81
Loyola University Chicago $66,007 $87,470 0.76
Loyola University Maryland $47,410 $92,188 0.51
Lynn University $30,750 $46,790 0.66
Malone University $28,749 $61,814 0.47
Marist College $28,505 $88,506 0.32
Marquette University $37,829 $98,506 0.38
Marymount University $40,789 $74,157 0.55
McKendree University $28,452 $59,942 0.48
Mercy College $35,875 $64,196 0.56
Meredith College $41,984 $73,949 0.57
Methodist University $17,800 $52,464 0.34
Metropolitan College of New York $39,006 $54,622 0.71
Metropolitan State University $30,750 $65,131 0.47
Michigan State University $51,250 $98,481 0.52
Mid-America Christian University $41,000 $43,519 0.94
MidAmerica Nazarene University $30,412 $61,218 0.5
Middle Tennessee State University $34,155 $67,101 0.51
Midland University $28,700 $63,005 0.46
Millsaps College $30,000 $61,516 0.49
Misericordia University $20,500 $47,650 0.43
Mississippi State University $20,000 $88,527 0.23
Mississippi Valley State University $38,296 $33,993 1.13
Missouri Baptist University $35,283 $53,358 0.66
Missouri State University-Springfield $16,982 $58,402 0.29
Molloy College $38,403 $68,499 0.56
Monmouth University $33,128 $62,211 0.53
Monroe College $30,450 $52,357 0.58
Montclair State University $41,000 $88,971 0.46
Montreat College $41,000 $49,214 0.83
Morgan State University $41,000 $51,750 0.79
Mount Mary University $46,333 $69,338 0.67
Mount Mercy University $34,439 $68,666 0.5
Mount Saint Mary College $31,770 $52,941 0.6
Mount Saint Mary's University $41,000 $67,660 0.61
Mount St. Mary's University $28,516 $68,331 0.42
Mount Vernon Nazarene University $39,904 $61,516 0.65
National American University-Rapid City $39,207 $51,722 0.76
National Louis University $41,000 $63,600 0.65
National University $40,192 $65,238 0.62
National University College $13,900 $32,032 0.43
New England College of Business and Finance $22,111 $69,338 0.32
New Jersey City University $38,503 $63,749 0.6
New Jersey Institute of Technology $35,250 $85,918 0.41
New Mexico Highlands University $17,860 $54,192 0.33
New York University $81,350 $145,543 0.56
Newman University $24,881 $57,318 0.43
Nicholls State University $13,300 $56,641 0.24
Nichols College $24,200 $65,387 0.37
North Carolina Central University $57,746 $44,384 1.3
North Carolina State University at Raleigh $37,014 $74,200 0.5
North Central College $30,750 $62,260 0.49
North Park University $27,900 $58,303 0.48
Northcentral University $35,016 $49,990 0.7
Northeastern State University $24,659 $67,660 0.36
Northeastern University $30,750 $61,516 0.5
Northern Arizona University $30,125 $65,042 0.46
Northern Illinois University $30,750 $91,587 0.34
Northwest Missouri State University $18,667 $51,197 0.37
Northwest Nazarene University $32,740 $64,493 0.51
Northwest University $34,167 $77,715 0.44
Northwestern University $149,545 $189,565 0.79
Northwood University $41,000 $57,995 0.71
Norwich University $31,250 $79,912 0.39
Notre Dame de Namur University $51,250 $78,074 0.66
Nova Southeastern University $50,395 $58,605 0.86
Nyack College $30,750 $61,516 0.5
Oakland University $28,381 $89,412 0.32
Ohio Christian University $30,750 $51,482 0.6
Ohio Dominican University $37,356 $62,260 0.6
Ohio State University-Main Campus $49,189 $108,577 0.45
Ohio University-Main Campus $37,666 $90,283 0.42
Oklahoma City University $21,600 $76,083 0.28
Oklahoma Wesleyan University $37,469 $66,077 0.57
Olivet Nazarene University $29,160 $48,432 0.6
Oral Roberts University $37,562 $53,608 0.7
Oregon State University $34,166 $63,997 0.53
Our Lady of the Lake University $39,955 $55,625 0.72
Palm Beach Atlantic University $20,500 $60,689 0.34
Park University $28,885 $52,265 0.55
Pennsylvania State University-Main Campus $40,999 $94,864 0.43
Pepperdine University $82,310 $92,733 0.89
Pfeiffer University $35,013 $57,318 0.61
Piedmont College $20,969 $41,342 0.51
Pittsburg State University $18,194 $48,432 0.38
Plymouth State University $46,000 $60,771 0.76
Point Loma Nazarene University $37,576 $69,338 0.54
Point Park University $35,087 $57,735 0.61
Portland State University $41,000 $86,867 0.47
Prairie View A & M University $36,119 $54,109 0.67
Presidio Graduate School $59,662 $42,682 1.4
Providence College $20,500 $65,198 0.31
Purdue University-Main Campus $42,475 $88,342 0.48
Queens University of Charlotte $41,000 $86,867 0.47
Quinnipiac University $32,454 $70,044 0.46
Ramapo College of New Jersey $41,000 $97,604 0.42
Regent University $41,000 $45,500 0.9
Regis University $40,646 $66,897 0.61
Rice University $41,000 $127,993 0.32
Rider University $37,724 $79,473 0.48
Robert Morris University $37,583 $61,516 0.61
Robert Morris University Illinois $28,000 $57,770 0.49
Rochester Institute of Technology $41,000 $67,101 0.61
Rockhurst University $30,750 $70,176 0.44
Rollins College $49,888 $62,806 0.79
Roosevelt University $42,905 $61,350 0.7
Roseman University of Health Sciences $171,883 $94,408 1.82
Rosemont College $26,000 $58,221 0.45
Rowan University $26,387 $65,486 0.4
Russell Sage College $29,459 $59,124 0.5
Rutgers University-New Brunswick $53,313 $109,327 0.49
SUNY College at Oswego $26,128 $56,716 0.46
SUNY Empire State College $51,250 $69,897 0.73
SUNY Maritime College $41,000 $76,460 0.54
SUNY at Albany $38,391 $74,576 0.52
Sacred Heart University $35,000 $73,949 0.47
Saginaw Valley State University $31,399 $57,318 0.55
Saint Ambrose University $38,768 $78,657 0.49
Saint Cloud State University $21,750 $75,204 0.29
Saint Edward's University $45,802 $65,486 0.7
Saint John Fisher College $28,437 $54,686 0.52
Saint Leo University $46,125 $56,918 0.81
Saint Louis University $41,000 $88,904 0.46
Saint Martin's University $42,644 $58,221 0.73
Saint Mary's College of California $45,825 $108,331 0.42
Saint Mary's University of Minnesota $34,166 $72,469 0.47
Saint Mary-of-the-Woods College $18,500 $52,107 0.36
Saint Xavier University $46,784 $71,957 0.65
Salem University $28,200 $41,342 0.68
Salisbury University $20,500 $53,537 0.38
Salve Regina University $17,420 $61,888 0.28
Sam Houston State University $34,937 $68,858 0.51
San Diego State University $40,998 $68,499 0.6
San Francisco State University $29,677 $80,124 0.37
San Jose State University $35,250 $87,973 0.4
Santa Clara University $54,666 $128,588 0.43
Seattle University $41,000 $86,424 0.47
Seton Hill University $24,836 $51,169 0.49
Shippensburg University of Pennsylvania $20,500 $65,066 0.32
Shorter University $26,630 $45,249 0.59
Siena Heights University $30,466 $60,771 0.5
Simmons University $54,920 $71,778 0.77
Slippery Rock University of Pennsylvania $20,500 $59,124 0.35
Sonoma State University $38,979 $83,768 0.47
South University-Savannah $41,000 $42,799 0.96
Southeastern Louisiana University $19,867 $51,106 0.39
Southern Arkansas University Main Campus $24,825 $58,402 0.43
Southern Connecticut State University $36,366 $64,706 0.56
Southern Illinois University-Carbondale $30,750 $54,809 0.56
Southern Illinois University-Edwardsville $24,412 $56,931 0.43
Southern Methodist University $111,000 $120,363 0.92
Southern Nazarene University $39,100 $58,092 0.67
Southern New Hampshire University $39,292 $69,218 0.57
Southern University and A & M College $47,436 $49,344 0.96
Southern Wesleyan University $29,050 $42,682 0.68
Southwest Minnesota State University $21,763 $55,964 0.39
Southwestern College $26,979 $60,523 0.45
St Bonaventure University $22,500 $54,401 0.41
St Catherine University $53,143 $66,915 0.79
St John's University-New York $47,825 $63,430 0.75
St. Joseph's College-New York $34,600 $81,997 0.42
St. Thomas University $36,500 $53,358 0.68
Stanford University $41,000 $163,337 0.25
State University of New York at New Paltz $20,500 $51,607 0.4
Stetson University $30,661 $62,260 0.49
Stevens Institute of Technology $38,500 $125,611 0.31
Stevens-Henager College $15,736 $49,136 0.32
Stockton University $27,250 $57,318 0.48
Stony Brook University $30,949 $50,563 0.61
Strayer University-District of Columbia $74,380 $56,911 1.31
Suffolk University $41,000 $83,388 0.49
Sullivan University $44,885 $50,742 0.89
Syracuse University $71,750 $77,966 0.92
Tarleton State University $23,003 $60,013 0.38
Temple University $45,523 $102,409 0.45
Tennessee State University $40,438 $54,463 0.74
Tennessee Technological University $19,727 $62,579 0.32
Texas A & M International University $21,995 $45,696 0.48
Texas A & M University-College Station $39,749 $115,761 0.34
Texas A & M University-Commerce $31,680 $68,688 0.46
Texas A & M University-Corpus Christi $24,888 $57,318 0.43
Texas A & M University-Kingsville $28,247 $57,526 0.49
Texas A&M University-Texarkana $11,989 $62,012 0.19
Texas Christian University $41,000 $97,663 0.42
Texas Southern University $45,040 $52,941 0.85
Texas State University $31,750 $68,965 0.46
Texas Tech University $41,000 $75,706 0.54
Texas Woman's University $28,748 $65,131 0.44
The College of Saint Rose $34,952 $58,673 0.6
The College of Saint Scholastica $32,383 $75,383 0.43
The New School $65,598 $59,788 1.1
The University of Alabama $39,932 $80,004 0.5
The University of Findlay $26,013 $61,814 0.42
The University of Montana $21,129 $58,673 0.36
The University of Tampa $31,055 $59,253 0.52
The University of Tennessee-Chattanooga $27,350 $76,041 0.36
The University of Tennessee-Knoxville $39,250 $99,251 0.4
The University of Texas at Arlington $37,188 $76,460 0.49
The University of Texas at Austin $67,500 $131,707 0.51
The University of Texas at Dallas $41,530 $94,674 0.44
The University of Texas at El Paso $33,963 $52,420 0.65
The University of Texas at San Antonio $35,572 $74,786 0.48
The University of Texas at Tyler $31,530 $68,858 0.46
The University of West Florida $30,637 $49,854 0.62
Thomas College $20,500 $49,883 0.41
Thomas Edison State University $27,462 $71,015 0.39
Thomas Jefferson University $43,242 $57,619 0.75
Thomas More University $38,979 $70,456 0.55
Trevecca Nazarene University $30,750 $59,967 0.51
Trident University International $21,995 $64,990 0.34
Trine University $19,329 $52,941 0.37
Trinity Washington University $45,334 $61,303 0.74
Troy University $35,735 $58,549 0.61
Tulane University of Louisiana $72,378 $87,973 0.82
Tusculum University $20,750 $68,219 0.3
Union Institute & University $30,750 $72,899 0.42
Union University $31,637 $70,456 0.45
Universidad Ana G. Mendez-Carolina Campus $15,310 $33,993 0.45
Universidad Ana G. Mendez-Cupey Campus $24,370 $32,678 0.75
Universidad Ana G. Mendez-Gurabo Campus $20,514 $37,208 0.55
Universidad Politecnica de Puerto Rico $29,600 $53,358 0.56
University at Buffalo $36,648 $68,499 0.54
University of Akron Main Campus $29,000 $81,111 0.36
University of Alabama at Birmingham $36,500 $70,176 0.52
University of Arizona $41,000 $92,743 0.44
University of Arkansas $27,800 $106,421 0.26
University of Arkansas at Little Rock $34,343 $54,739 0.63
University of Baltimore $41,000 $75,204 0.55
University of Bridgeport $38,750 $60,161 0.64
University of California-Berkeley $57,297 $171,936 0.33
University of California-Davis $61,589 $116,258 0.53
University of California-Irvine $78,253 $90,983 0.86
University of California-Los Angeles $77,000 $143,744 0.54
University of California-San Diego $90,670 $101,406 0.89
University of Central Missouri $22,700 $55,286 0.41
University of Central Oklahoma $18,250 $67,324 0.27
University of Chicago $68,376 $159,442 0.43
University of Cincinnati-Main Campus $28,606 $79,284 0.36
University of Colorado Boulder $40,500 $80,503 0.5
University of Colorado Colorado Springs $39,009 $71,015 0.55
University of Colorado Denver/Anschutz Medical Campus $41,500 $89,184 0.47
University of Connecticut $37,490 $106,249 0.35
University of Dallas $50,000 $77,966 0.64
University of Dayton $20,039 $63,005 0.32
University of Delaware $41,000 $86,424 0.47
University of Denver $40,544 $54,661 0.74
University of Detroit Mercy $61,500 $81,111 0.76
University of Dubuque $15,784 $57,589 0.27
University of Evansville $25,250 $45,221 0.56
University of Florida $36,520 $88,546 0.41
University of Georgia $49,576 $111,283 0.45
University of Hartford $24,223 $90,348 0.27
University of Hawaii at Manoa $45,106 $78,719 0.57
University of Houston $41,000 $92,563 0.44
University of Houston-Clear Lake $25,394 $78,343 0.32
University of Houston-Downtown $20,500 $64,990 0.32
University of Houston-Victoria $31,178 $67,324 0.46
University of Illinois at Chicago $43,535 $80,189 0.54
University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign $56,209 $95,930 0.59
University of Indianapolis $30,263 $62,260 0.49
University of Iowa $42,795 $96,991 0.44
University of Kansas $29,960 $73,299 0.41
University of La Verne $43,500 $69,657 0.62
University of Louisiana at Lafayette $24,209 $46,869 0.52
University of Mary $23,309 $60,230 0.39
University of Maryland Global Campus $50,831 $72,006 0.71
University of Maryland-College Park $71,000 $106,102 0.67
University of Massachusetts-Amherst $30,750 $99,741 0.31
University of Massachusetts-Boston $29,697 $74,200 0.4
University of Massachusetts-Lowell $30,750 $71,854 0.43
University of Memphis $29,022 $73,446 0.4
University of Miami $83,312 $83,022 1
University of Michigan-Ann Arbor $47,258 $140,166 0.34
University of Michigan-Dearborn $33,937 $90,856 0.37
University of Minnesota-Twin Cities $45,000 $112,319 0.4
University of Mount Olive $22,042 $45,947 0.48
University of Nebraska at Omaha $31,940 $87,068 0.37
University of Nebraska-Lincoln $22,247 $91,017 0.24
University of Nevada-Las Vegas $40,703 $90,856 0.45
University of Nevada-Reno $20,500 $82,440 0.25
University of New Mexico-Main Campus $31,721 $59,688 0.53
University of New Orleans $35,500 $63,692 0.56
University of North Alabama $40,593 $66,461 0.61
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill $68,719 $127,836 0.54
University of North Carolina at Charlotte $36,725 $84,653 0.43
University of North Carolina at Greensboro $32,829 $64,121 0.51
University of North Florida $24,863 $65,557 0.38
University of North Texas $22,587 $77,401 0.29
University of Northwestern Ohio $40,284 $48,432 0.83
University of Oklahoma-Norman Campus $33,750 $95,473 0.35
University of Oregon $41,000 $86,621 0.47
University of Pennsylvania $47,275 $175,674 0.27
University of Phoenix-Arizona $34,354 $56,498 0.61
University of Pikeville $19,005 $37,424 0.51
University of Portland $34,810 $72,510 0.48
University of Redlands $41,000 $79,037 0.52
University of Rochester $49,734 $89,524 0.56
University of Saint Francis-Fort Wayne $25,681 $64,706 0.4
University of Saint Mary $31,793 $69,338 0.46
University of San Diego $49,653 $89,672 0.55
University of San Francisco $51,048 $96,866 0.53
University of Scranton $40,457 $82,440 0.49
University of South Carolina-Columbia $40,222 $95,102 0.42
University of South Dakota $21,934 $68,778 0.32
University of South Florida-Main Campus $30,250 $66,566 0.45
University of Southern California $82,279 $131,090 0.63
University of St Francis $35,653 $69,338 0.51
University of St Thomas $44,614 $101,300 0.44
University of Toledo $27,250 $71,575 0.38
University of Utah $42,250 $98,213 0.43
University of Virginia-Main Campus $89,889 $155,263 0.58
University of Washington-Seattle Campus $46,712 $127,652 0.37
University of West Georgia $27,437 $62,343 0.44
University of Wisconsin-Eau Claire $26,396 $85,206 0.31
University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee $27,837 $65,267 0.43
University of Wisconsin-Oshkosh $23,467 $80,292 0.29
University of Wisconsin-Platteville $30,000 $77,087 0.39
University of Wisconsin-River Falls $30,500 $73,949 0.41
University of the Cumberlands $11,340 $49,787 0.23
University of the Incarnate Word $37,583 $59,253 0.63
Upper Iowa University $39,092 $63,005 0.62
Utah State University $21,882 $71,015 0.31
Valdosta State University $28,278 $55,964 0.51
Vanderbilt University $83,273 $127,087 0.66
Villanova University $41,000 $109,095 0.38
Virginia Commonwealth University $41,000 $93,467 0.44
Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University $39,888 $113,246 0.35
Viterbo University $30,626 $61,218 0.5
Wagner College $49,385 $58,557 0.84
Wake Forest University $51,549 $76,836 0.67
Walden University $41,000 $58,943 0.7
Walsh College $37,255 $73,486 0.51
Walsh University $29,719 $65,089 0.46
Warner Pacific University $41,000 $50,856 0.81
Warner University $43,050 $41,349 1.04
Washington State University $39,505 $100,915 0.39
Washington University in St Louis $82,799 $112,270 0.74
Wayland Baptist University $35,968 $53,984 0.67
Wayne State University $33,187 $90,079 0.37
Waynesburg University $20,494 $67,660 0.3
Weber State University $28,916 $76,878 0.38
Webster University $47,198 $64,473 0.73
Wesleyan College $41,000 $63,005 0.65
Western Carolina University $28,340 $55,286 0.51
Western Governors University $13,990 $70,169 0.2
Western Kentucky University $20,746 $61,144 0.34
Western Michigan University $39,601 $73,801 0.54
Western New England University $27,513 $71,015 0.39
Western Washington University $21,874 $63,005 0.35
Westminster College $47,129 $80,521 0.59
Wichita State University $22,253 $57,318 0.39
Wilkes University $33,000 $52,733 0.63
Willamette University $66,763 $73,530 0.91
William & Mary $43,126 $68,499 0.63
William Paterson University of New Jersey $33,309 $65,238 0.51
William Woods University $16,600 $50,856 0.33
Wilmington University $35,843 $54,697 0.66
Winthrop University $24,103 $54,724 0.44
Woodbury University $30,750 $63,997 0.48
Worcester Polytechnic Institute $40,500 $119,061 0.34
Wright State University-Main Campus $35,769 $69,338 0.52
Xavier University $41,000 $84,284 0.49
Yale University $69,938 $147,858 0.47
Youngstown State University $26,203 $64,706 0.41


Note: Shows median debt for graduates in roughly 2015 and 2016, compared to median income two years later. Data isn't available for programs with few graduates. Figures are only for graduates who borrowed federal loans. Program names are standardized across schools and may include multiple degrees. Different colleges sometimes report graduates of similar programs across degree levels or program names due to inconsistent coding. (For instance, Harvard Business School's M.B.A. is listed as a professional degree, not a master's degree.)

Source: Education Department

For-profit business schools had fewer students who repaid their loans after two years. At Strayer University in Washington, D.C., 2% of graduates fully repaid their loans within two years, while about a third asked to temporarily suspend payments. Strayer students borrowed a median $74,000, yet half earned less than $57,000 two years after graduation. Strayer didn’t respond to requests for comment.

About a dozen other business schools showed median debt loads outstripping graduates’ median earnings, the Journal’s analysis found. Several of those schools said their debt numbers are inflated because the federal debt data reflect students in pricey dual-degree programs. Roseman University of Health Sciences had the highest debt compared to earnings of any school, with students borrowing a median $172,000. That figure includes students in the school’s dual dentistry and M.B.A. program, a school spokesman said.


 At several elite M.B.A. programs, including Harvard Business School and Stanford Graduate School of Business, the median starting salary after graduation allowed more than half of alumni to fully pay off their federal student loans within two years, according to the data the Journal examined.

Some of the most expensive M.B.A. programs had some of the lowest debt loads, federal data show. At Dartmouth’s Tuck School of Business and some other top schools, graduates borrowed a median $41,000 in federal loans, which is the maximum amount that students can borrow at the most favorable interest rates, without resorting to higher-interest Grad Plus loans.

At Harvard Business School, students had $41,000 in debt and median earnings of about $172,000, according to the federal data. About 56% of the 2020 class of M.B.A.s graduated with some debt, averaging $79,000 in federal and private loans combined, said Chad Losee, Harvard’s managing director of M.B.A. admissions.

 Daniel Huizinga, 29, landed a job at consulting company Accenture PLC after getting his undergraduate business degree from Baylor University in 2015, but he decided to pursue an M.B.A. in the hopes of moving up at Accenture or landing a job at one of the top consultancies—McKinsey & Co., Bain & Co. or Boston Consulting Group. He calculated that going back to school, and providing for his young family for those two years, would cost him about $300,000. He landed a $90,000 scholarship from the University of Chicago’s Booth School of Business and had $100,000 saved from five years of working. He borrowed $100,000 to enroll last fall and will graduate in the spring of 2022.

At one of the big consulting firms, Mr. Huizinga expects to make roughly $200,000 a year upon graduation, which will allow him to pay off the debt in two to three years.

“I wanted to go to a top school with a good brand name. It opens doors I didn’t have after undergrad,” he said. “For me, it was a no-brainer.”

For interactive content, visit the article on line. You may need a subscription to the WSJ for access.


Elzinga Flash Seminar

Feature | 07/31/2021

Blog: Consulting Blog #1

This message was shared with the ECO from the UVA Career Center for students interested in management consulting careers. This is message 1 of 3. For additional information, see Collab/ECO Resources/Vault Guides/Consulting Careers and the ECO website’s Industry Overviews in the “Management Consulting” section.

Step 1: Define Consulting 

We strongly suggest learning more about the role of a consultant before deciding to pursue internships and full-time positions. Here are a few resources to help get started with learning more: 

In addition to traditional management consulting, there are several areas of specialized consulting that may be of interest depending on your background. Look at the links below to see where your background may be best served or what is of most interest to you to work towards. 

If you are curious to learn more about which firms sit within each practice area, the Career Insider by Vault has a breakdown chart. From the top Data Analytics Consulting practices to Healthcare Consulting, this list serves as a valuable tool.

Last summer, we had the opportunity to hear from alumni from a variety of backgrounds talk about their path in consulting. Hear more about their story and advice in the videos and blog posts listed below:

Making the decision to pursue any career path is a big decision and it is important to make it an informed choice. In addition to the resources above, the Career Center offers an extensive library of resources are major and career exploration. 

  • PathwayU is a platform with assessments to help you identify education and career pathways that fit you and make the most sense for your unique interests and values.  

  • Candid Career is the premier provider of thousands of informational video interviews featuring industry professionals through an easy to use website. Their site provides the inside scoop on careers as well as advice that will give you an edge in your job search. Here are some links to videos with consultants to learn more about their day to day: 

  • Management Consultant, Boston Consulting Group 

  • Founder and Consultant, CompArchive LLC  

Step 2: Identify Target Firms 

Once you have decided consulting is an area you would like to explore further; we advise that you identify which firms you want to learn more about. Below are tips for accomplishing this: 

  • Regularly check the Events tab on Handshake to identify information sessions, coffee chats and networking events to attend. RSVP and add to your calendar! 

  • Visit each firm’s website, LinkedIn page, and social media accounts to learn more. You want to learn as much as you can about, the types of projects the firm typically works on and the overall environment to help assess fit.

For now, ask yourself some of these questions about the firm to assess fit:  

  • What does the organizational structure look like? 

  • What are the responsibilities of entry level consultants? 

  • What is the pattern for growth? Where do people go after their first role within the organization?

As you are identifying your firms to research, some will have specific portions of their websites dedicated to recruiting at UVA, check out these examples below: 

Elzinga Flash Seminar

Feature | 01/31/2017


Networking Programs! New Job Postings! Economics Career Forum!

Elzinga Flash Seminar

Feature | 08/12/2016

Water Scarcity and Growth Prospects

Julia Devlin, a former lecturer in the Economics department at UVA and now a senior fellow at the Brookings Institute, looks at the relationship between water scarcity and economic growth in the Middle East and Africa. Her article can be found at the Brookings Institute.

Elzinga Flash Seminar

Feature | 02/17/2023

Best Companies to Work for for Professional Development

Article from The Muse.

One way to guarantee career growth: Never stop learning. In fact, a recent study shows that a whopping 96% of respondents said it’s important or very important for them to continuously develop their work-related skills, with the top driver being personal growth. But it’s one thing to educate yourself, and quite another to have the full support of your company behind you. (In the same survey, 58% of workers said they are likely to leave their company if they don’t have access to professional development opportunities.) Thanks to perks like tuition reimbursement and free trainings, the companies below have made learning a celebrated part of their culture.

Professional development is just one of the seven perk and benefits categories we highlight in the 2022 VIBE Awards. “VIBE” stands for “voted in by employees.” As the name suggests, our methodology combined our own data as well as votes from employees, who ranked the strength of their company’s perks and benefits. Each category includes winners and honorable mentions for small (up to 250 employees), medium (251 to 5,000), and large (more than 5,000) companies.

Employees at Good Apple, a winner among the small companies, celebrate the company’s dedication to internal mobility and opportunities to attend conferences and receive training from professional coaches. “I’ve been at Good Apple for six months and have already done more in my team here than I did in the last two years at my previous agency,” says one employee. “I’m grateful to the company for helping me continue to grow in my career.”

A medium-sized company winner, Brilliant Earth, offers a variety of ways for team members to learn and grow. “I’ve taken countless courses on LinkedIn Learning and Coursera, many focused on diversity, inclusion, and belonging, as well as excel, data analysis, and talent acquisition,” says an employee. “I’ve also participated in a few cohorts with LifeLabs Learning, which have allowed me to improve my leadership, time management, organizational, and collaboration skills tremendously.”

And at Boston Consulting Group, which earned one of the top spots for large companies, new hires feel supported the minute they join the company. “From day one, BCG connected me with mentors and resources to make sure that I’m always learning and advancing in the exact direction I want my career to go,” says one respondent.

Read on for the full list of winners in the professional development category.

Small Companies

Good Apple

Who they are: This independent ad agency that works with clients in a range of industries, from fashion to healthcare.

What employees are saying: “Good Apple encourages us to attend industry conferences in person and virtually. They also provide coaching and pay for us to get certifications in all necessary platforms and study on company time.”

Read more about Good Apple’s award-winning perks and benefits.


Who they are: Intradiem develops AI-powered technology that allows back-end offices and contact centers handling customer service issues to work more efficiently.

What employees are saying: “Leadership is always asking what I want in my own career progression and what they can do to ensure I have the tools needed. They aren’t just empty words since I know many people, including myself, have been internally promoted or made lateral moves into another department to pursue a different path.”

Read more about Intradiem’s award-winning perks and benefits.


Who they are: This fintech company offers a platform that businesses and consumers can use to streamline digital lending and payments.

What employees are saying: “Opportunity at Momnt is here for the taking. My career has grown exponentially since joining the company.”

Read more about Momnt’s award-winning perks and benefits.

Honorable Mention: GameChanger

Read more about GameChanger’s award-winning perks and benefits.

Honorable Mention: Promenade Group

Read more about Promenade Group’s award-winning perks and benefits.

Medium Companies

Brilliant Earth

Who they are: Brilliant Earth sells jewelry made with ethically sourced diamonds and other gemstones.

What employees are saying: “I have utilized our tuition reimbursement program to take a negotiation course as well as earn my diversity leadership certification, which helped me found and lead our Diversity, Inclusion, and Belonging Council. Our internal training teams have created a vast amount of content related to leadership development, general business skills, and interesting industry-specific topics.”

Read more about Brilliant Earth’s award-winning perks and benefits.

Flatiron Health

Who they are: The healthtech company is focused on accelerating cancer research and improving patient care.

What employees are saying: “I have used the generous external learning allowance to attend conferences and purchase materials that are relevant to my work and professional development. ‘Learn, Teach, Grow’ days provide dedicated time to devote to professional development activities.”

Read more about Flatiron Health’s award-winning perks and benefits.


Who they are: This software company provides supply chain planning solutions to industries ranging from aerospace to consumer products.

What employees are saying: “We have a generous professional development budget that I’ve used to take courses and attend conferences. We also have a company-wide LinkedIn Learning subscription that I use when I need to quickly brush up on topics for my daily work. Both options help me stay current in my industry and grow as a people manager.”

Read more about Kinaxis’ award-winning perks and benefits.

Honorable Mention: Dolby

Read more about Dolby’s award-winning perks and benefits.

Honorable Mention: DTCC

Read more about DTCC’s award-winning perks and benefits.

Large Companies

Boston Consulting Group

Who they are: This global consulting firm works alongside other businesses to help solve real-world problems.

What employees are saying: “BCG has learning and development coaches available at any time. Whether it’s a personal question, a one-time professional issue, or longer-term career development planning, there is a wealth of expertise and resources to lean on. Additionally, we have one of the most comprehensive online learning platforms as well as regular trainings, mentorship programs, and consistent feedback and evaluation so that you are able to grow quickly in your career.”

Read more about Boston Consulting Group’s award-winning perks and benefits.


Who they are: Chick-fil-A is one of the largest American fast-food chains and is known for its chicken sandwiches.

What employees are saying: “There are so many development opportunities available with Chick-fil-A, it could nearly be a part-time job. In-house offerings are available to employees, and there’s a stipend to gain additional development so we can meet personal professional goals. In addition, there is a true open-door policy when it comes to connecting with others across the organization, including executives and those in the C-suite.”

Read more about Chick-fil-A’s award-winning perks and benefits.

Palo Alto Networks

Who they are: This cybersecurity company provides cutting-edge defense against cyber attacks.

What employees are saying: “We have so many options for development. In the past year, I’ve been able to hear from leaders in everything from leadership to mental health, attended a Marketing Learning Day, and was funded to attend an industry conference. All of these have reinvigorated my passion for the job, given me new tools, and made me feel valued.”

Read more about Palo Alto Networks’ award-winning perks and benefits.

Honorable Mention: Signify

Read more about Signify’s award-winning perks and benefits.

Honorable Mention: Visa

Read more about Visa’s award-winning perks and benefits.

Elzinga Flash Seminar

Feature | 08/08/2017


"These days, we do lots of things online. While this saves us a lot of time, it also demands more focus and concentration on our part. With all the distractions the internet offers, you may want to use some effective time management tools to eliminate them." -Jack Milgram


Click here to read the rest of the article. 

Elzinga Flash Seminar

Feature | 09/25/2022

How to Make a Good Impression In an Interview or Networking

The Best Way to Brag About Your Accomplishments: Don’t Take All the Credit

If you want your accomplishments to really sing, give someone else’s hard work a shout-out, a study finds

Want to make the best possible impression on someone to boost your career prospects? Share the credit for your accomplishments.

That’s the conclusion a team of professors reached in research they wrote up for a paper currently under review for publication. It turns out that when it’s important to impress someone—say, in an interview for a new job or a promotion—simply bragging about your successes isn’t as effective as talking about both yourself and your team, the professors say.

“We don’t want people to shy away from an opportunity to highlight their accomplishments, but bragging can seem so off-putting and cringy,” says one of the researchers, Eric VanEpps, an assistant professor of marketing at the University of Utah’s David Eccles School of Business. “You can instead brag about your strengths and accomplishments while also saying something positive about the skills and talents of other people involved, too. Playing nice and sharing credit works quite well.”

When trying to decide whether to give credit to somebody, people often feel they have a trade-off between making themselves seem competent and coming across as likable. Researchers have referred to the trade-off as the “self-promotion dilemma.”

But Dr. VanEpps and his colleagues—Einav Hart of the George Mason University School of Business and Maurice Schweitzer of the Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania—wanted to see if the solution is what they call dual promotion. In one study they conducted, they asked a group of hiring professionals to evaluate two hypothetical co-workers who had completed a joint project and then written self evaluations that would be used to consider them for a role. One of the self evaluations described only the work of the individual; the other took some credit while also acknowledging the contribution of the colleague.

“The wording was something like: ‘This project was successful because of our teamwork. I took care of all the financial analysis, and back-end design. Alex really impressed me with how he handled our client communications,’ ” says Dr. VanEpps. The hiring managers gave the dual promoter nearly 1.5 more points on a scale of 1 to 7 when it came to warmth, and ranked the dual promoter more than a point higher on overall impression.

“By self-promoting, you look cold, not ideal to work with,” Dr. VanEpps says, adding that earlier research by many others has consistently shown this to be true.

Another study looked at dual promotion versus self promotion in a political context. Nearly 200 participants, roughly half registered Republicans and half registered Democrats, read about two hypothetical members of Congress on a transportation and infrastructure committee. They were then shown two statements about the committee’s recent work, based on material drawn from the House Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure, with the wording manipulated to make each statement clearly self promoting or dual promoting. The study participants were asked how likely they would be to vote for each politician.

“People were far more likely to vote for the dual promoter, who seemed more warm and more competent to participants,” says Dr. VanEpps. “By giving credit to others, you come across as self-assured, which means you must really know what you’re doing.” He points to two earlier studies by his team that showed that laypeople typically use self promotion, while politicians often use dual promotion, “because they are trained to think about how they are perceived out there by others,” he says.

Ms. Mitchell is a writer in Chicago. She can be reached at reports@wsj.com.

Taken from The Wall Street Journal, 9/15/2022

Devaki Ghose

Feature | 09/12/2018

Devaki Ghose, Invited to International Econ Program at Dartmouth

In 2017, the Department of Economics at Dartmouth College began a Visiting Ph.D. Program in International Economics.  According to the program website “The program will provide funding to current Ph.D. students with high potential who have completed their coursework to visit Dartmouth College. There are no teaching or RA obligations associated with the position: visiting students are simply expected to be active members of the vibrant Dartmouth international economics community. “ Students from universities around the world apply and, each academic term, one is admitted to the program. Devaki was selected during the 2018 winter term and describe it as “one of the most rewarding experiences I had in recent years. My supervisor at Dartmouth, Treb Allen, not only provided invaluable academic input, but also encouraged me to dream bigger and push my ideas further. The vibrant academic community there, comprised of established professors and enterprising post-doctoral students, provided me with constructive criticism and fresh ideas that infused my project with new energy. I think what makes Dartmouth a very special place is that it is a top school with no graduate program in economics. Being the only graduate student for the term, all the professors had lots of time to talk about my research and interact with me. I will recommend every student in international economics to consider applying for this program in future.”


Elzinga Flash Seminar

Feature | 01/15/2019

Internships for Credit in Germany, Ireland, and South Africa

New UVA Programs with iXperience to Offer Liberal Arts Credit, Skills Development, and Practical Experience in Africa and Europe


A unique education abroad collaboration between the University of Virginia (College and Graduate School of Arts & Sciences and the International Studies Office) and iXperience, a global educational company founded by two Yale University graduates, will offer undergraduate students from UVA and other universities the opportunity to combine liberal arts study, critical skills development, and practical work experience in Cape Town, South Africa; Berlin, Germany; and Lisbon, Portugal. The new summer programs will debut in May 2019.


Students enrolled in the programs earn from 6 to 10 credits from UVA. The program in Cape Town, called iX Immerse, is composed of two parts – a liberal arts component led by UVA faculty designed to provide students with a deep understanding of the South African context; and a “boot camp-style” practicum that immerses students in topics such as data science, product management, or digital design. The program combines an introduction to a 21st century knowledge and skill area, practical application with a South African company or non-profit, and critical reflection. The programs in Berlin and Lisbon, called iX Accelerate, offer a 6-credit liberal arts seminar with a boot camp focus on a topic (such as full stack coding) informed by liberal arts coursework and hands-on experience.


iXperience Campus, Cape Town, South Africa

The University of Virginia / iXperience relationship comes at a time when UVA’s College and Graduate School of Arts & Sciences has been working to build on its reputation for academic excellence by advancing itself as an international leader in undergraduate education and global public engagement. With UVA as the academic sponsor, iXperience can offer programs with one of the world’s elite public universities while expanding the professional training opportunities for liberal arts students seeking a rewarding study abroad experience. Participants meet degree requirements, navigate and reflect on life in another country, and prepare for the workplace.

“The collaboration with iXperience has the potential to serve as a new model for higher education,” said Ian Baucom, the University of Virginia’s Buckner W. Clay Dean of Arts & Sciences. “This is a compelling way to integrate the liberal arts with skills-based learning and hands-on internship experiences in a global context, and we’re excited to offer this opportunity not only for students, but also for our faculty seeking research and teaching opportunities in Africa and Europe.”

Over the last three years, more than 150 UVA students have independently traveled to Cape Town and iXperience’s other international campuses during the summer to take non-credit iXperience courses rooted in technology, management consulting and other fields. Through the new collaboration between the University and iXperience, students in the iX Immerse program will have the added benefit of taking of UVA liberal arts coursework built on four key themes; history and politics, environment and sustainability, health and society, and arts and music. The course will be followed by iXperience’s blend of internships and “boot camp” skills training.

This unique educational experience empowers students to face the challenges of the future.""The world is changing at an increasingly rapid rate and in response our vision at iXperience is to bridge the gap between traditional education and futuristic skills development” said Aaron Fuchs, iXperience’s founder and CEO. “In collaboration with UVA, one of the preeminent public universities in the world, we are designing the future of learning by combining the liberal arts with progressive skills development in an international setting. This unique educational experience empowers students to face the challenges of the future."

Since its founding in South Africa in 2013, iXperience has grown globally with more than 1,000 students enrolled in its classes and internships in Cape Town, Berlin, and Lisbon.


iXperience students in Lisbon, Portugal

For more information about the new UVA / iXperience programs and the pilot courses debuting in summer 2019, visit the iXperience website.

UVA students interested in these programs must apply through the iXperience website and also secure institutional approval by submitting a UVA Education Abroad application (click on the program(s) of interest to get started).  

Elzinga Flash Seminar

Feature | 03/27/2019

Surviving the One-Way Video Interview

Taken from Vault:

Burgeoning bankers beware—recruiting techniques continue to shift towards the electronic. Financial services giant JPMorgan announced that it will be drastically cutting down its presence at college career fairs and will be moving the entry phase of its recruitment process to a one-way video interview (i.e., pre-recorded, not with a person on the other side) accompanied by games meant to reveal behavioral patterns. I can’t speak to the efficacy that games would have in predicting behavior attributes, although I admit to being skeptical. What I can speak to, however, are one-way video interviews.

In short: They’re awful. Companies really like them because, instead of spending 30 minutes on the phone with every potential candidate, the candidates submit their pre-recorded interviews on a rolling basis to be watching at the hiring managers’ convenience. The format they take for the candidate, however, is an anxiety-inducing nightmare. There is no person on the other end of the line on a one-way video interview—I know, right? So it’s less like an interview and more like a virtual, visual questionnaire. You’re given a question, given a set time to think about the question (approximately 30 to 60 seconds), and then your camera turns on and you answer. Within a strict time limit (approximately one minute). Oftentimes, with only one take. I’ll reiterate: One-way video interviews are awful. But you better get used to them, because they’re here to stay. Luckily, I’ve got some tips to making sure that you make it through in one piece. 

Look the Part—and in the Right Direction

A video interview is still an interview—so dress like you’re going to one. Although I suppose, if you really wanted to, you could ostensibly wear sweatpants with your shirt and tie, so long as you’re shooting from the waist up. I wouldn’t recommend it, though. Get your webcam set up and pointed to a spot with a relatively neutral background. (Blank wall or classy painting—probably fine. Dirty laundry piled on your bed—definitely not fine.) I actually place my laptop on a sturdy stack of books to get a better angle, like when you lift your phone up to take a selfie. Make sure you’re well-lit but there’s no lens flare and that you’ve kicked your roommate out until you’re done. One-way video interviews are usually done on a rolling basis, which means you’ve got the time to set yourself up right—and work your best angles.

And don’t forget to look into the camera, not at yourself! Drag the window with your face in it nearer to the webcam if you can’t control yourself. Eye contact is important, even if you’re not technically making eye contact with anyone yet.

Practice, Practice, Practice

In my experience, the average time to answer a question on a video interview was about a minute. Considering that time limit accompanied broad questions like, “How do you believe this position fits in with the team at large?”—which also seemed specific for a first round interview—I felt the time crunch hard. And you can’t rush through your answer either because the first rule of being on camera is: Speak slowly. Usually, I only had one take to get it right—which is fine in person but, with the clock literally ticking, it felt more like being in 8 Mile. So what’s a girl to do if her palms are sweaty, knees weak, arms are heavy?

(I’m so sorry.)

Practice. Write up a series of questions you think you’re likely to hear. Ask your friends and family for questions they’ve been asked in interviews. Check out Vault’s sample questions—we’re here for more than striking fear into the heart of those facing video interviews, after all. When you’ve got enough, set a timer for one minute, then rehearse your answers aloud until you have them down pat. Sounding a little scripted and “over-rehearsed” is infinitely better than falling prey to time-induced panic or—worse—getting cut off in the middle of your sentence. The more you practice having to answer questions concisely as opposed to comprehensively, the better you’ll get at it.

Don’t Panic

Crucial advice from the standard repository of all knowledge and wisdom. A person can read panic through a video like one might read a book, and hiring managers won’t be impressed to see you very obviously freaking out. Being calm in confident in any situation is critical to life in the working world.

My advice? Keep your perspective. Video interviewing is new—the process is unfamiliar, and you’re not the only person potentially struggling with it. If you went over your time, shake it off—a dozen other people probably did, too. So many of your fellow candidates were definitely looking at themselves and not the camera, and somebody out there certainly sweated profusely through the entire interview. You should try to avoid mistakes, of course, but almost no one is a pro at video interviews, which means your “huge glaring mistake” will simply be one tree in a forest. Just answer the questions as best you can, and then wow them in person at the call back. This initial interview is less about being perfect and more about letting the company know that you’re interested, enthusiastic, and can communicate effectively. So just breathe.


Read more here.

Elzinga Flash Seminar

Feature | 09/17/2018

The 30 Best Tips to Prepare for an Interview


  1. Spend a few hours learning everything you can about the company—from as many sources as you can. Talk to friends and contacts, read current news releases, and, yes, spend some time on Google. Often, candidates just look at the information a company is pushing out via the website and social media, but fail to look more in depth at what others are saying. By doing so, you’ll get the larger picture about the company (along with any negative press).


  2. Get a sense of “who” the company is and how to embody a similar personality during your interview. Start by reading the company’s blog and Facebook page—the tone of the company’s content on these sites will speak volumes. Or, try reading individual employees’ blogs to figure out what type of people work (and excel) there...Click here for more: https://www.themuse.com/advice/the-ultimate-interview-guide-30-prep-tips...

Elzinga Flash Seminar

Feature | 02/20/2019

Annual Economics Undergraduate Career Forum

What can you do with an economics major? Almost anything! Join the economics department for a series of career talks and office hours, as well as two career panels moderated by our faculty. You’ll hear from guests with diverse backgrounds and have a chance to ask questions and network with our guests. What do they have in common – an economics major! This program will be of interest to all students who are considering work in the fields of our guests.


Feature | 03/27/2019

1st year student Mrithyunjayan Nilayamgode presents at NEUDC and SEA conferences

In fall of 2018, 1st year student Mrithyunjayan Nilayamgode presented a paper at the Northeast Universities Development Consortium (NEUDC) conference on development economics at Cornell University and at the Annual Meeting of the Southern Economic Association (SEA) in Washington, DC. He met and received valuable feedback on his paper from development economists and crime economists from across the world. The NEUDC conference typically accepts around a quarter of the 600-odd submissions it receives, and is one of the premier conferences in development economics in the US. The SEA is one of the oldest economics associations in the US, and was founded by economists affiliated with universities in the southern US, including UVA. Its annual meetings usually involve thousands of papers and participants from dozens of countries across the world.

In his paper titled "Alcohol Ban and Crime: The ABC’s of the Bihar Prohibition", Mrithyunjayan and his co-authors find that alcohol regulation in the Indian state of Bihar has reduced the incidence of violent crimes, but not non-violent crime. These results are concentrated in areas where the ban may have had a larger impact, suggesting that the availability of alcohol had a large role to play. This is in line with the prevalent understanding in economics and psychology that intoxication may impair perception, thereby reducing the barriers of entry into crime. The results are also robust to a number of alternate specifications, including the use of a synthetic control group.

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Feature | 11/02/2021

ECO Article: Explosive Tech Firm Growth in NYC - Younger Firms Driving Office Leasing

Younger firms are driving office leasing in the city


Taken from Crain's New York, October 11, 2021

The ECO recommends this article to get a sense of the NYC economy, what's going on in commercial real estate, and because the info signals the possibility of jobs and internships for our majors. For more Crain's New York info, click here.


The share of young firms leasing office space in the city has skyrocketed, driving down the average age of businesses that are signing deals to 27 years old, down from 29 years in 2019, according to data from Newmark.

Demand for space from tenants that have been in business for less than 10 years grew by 514% during the pandemic, compared with 226% in 2019, with some of them leasing 10 times more space than they occupied in 2019, the report said.

“I kept coming across companies I’ve never heard of going from 20,000 square feet to 60,000 square feet,” said David Falk, president of Newmark’s New York tristate region. “It wasn’t just the Googles and Facebooks of the world.” 


Those deals were driven by tech companies such as Alloy, Freshly and DailyPay,  which have all grown by more than 1,000%, and Remarkable Foods, Fubo TV, Affirm and Cashapp, which quadrupled their offices. Noom signed a sublease for 113,000 square feet at Brookfield’s 5 Manhattan West in the fall of 2020.

The expansions are thanks to rapid growth and hiring among these businesses, which have resisted much of the pandemic’s damage to the city’s economy. 

“Their business has done quite well over the last year,” Falk said. “They started at an opportune time to look at real estate and move to a better building or get better terms or flexibility.”

They’re responsible for pushing the office market out of 15 months of negative absorption, when more space was given up than was leased. In Midtown South, where most of these companies are, that figure turned positive during the third quarter, with net absorption of nearly 433,000 square feet.

The overall number of tenants in the technology, advertising, marketing and information space looking for new offices grew from 107 in 2019 to 132 as of last month. 

Companies including Remarkable Foods, Cashapp, Splice and Twitch have grown out of coworking space and expanded into their own offices. TikTok was previously operating out of a WeWork at 1460 Broadway but relocated to a 232,000-square-foot, seven-floor office at the Durst Organization’s 151 W. 42nd St. during the spring.

Since the start of the pandemic, more than 31% of emerging tenants’ leases, however, were subleases, compared with 24% of deals signed by emerging tech firms. They were able to scoop up office space in newer Class A buildings for a discounted price.

“These tenants can now get better buildings at reasonable prices with flexible terms,” Falk said. “Aesthetics are becoming more important to them.”





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Feature | 09/28/2021

ECO Article: Becoming a Morning Person Doesn’t Have to Be Hard

Sleep and productivity experts weigh in on how to get your morning mojo back; ‘Whatever you do, don’t log on to your work email’

*From the ECO: Although this article intends an audience of working parents, this applies to anyone who is working on modifying their schedule to rise earlier, post-Covid.

For the Wall Street Journal
by Rachel Feintzeig

First I was waiting until the kids went back to daycare. Then the deadline was the return to the office, which never came.
Here I still was: avoiding my alarm clock, stumbling out to walk the dog in my pajamas, ignoring judgmental looks from my husband as he sipped his green smoothie, 6 a.m. workout complete. Had I even brushed my teeth?
I had to face it. My mornings were a mess.
It began as a small indulgence in a strange time, the delicious pandemic sleep-in. Virtual school meant no frenzied dropoffs; remote workers ditched the commute. What else was there to do, stuck at home? A Nielsen survey from June 2020 found 54% of those working remotely were getting up later than before, compared with 12% rising earlier.
Now, on the cusp of a new season, it’s time to take back our mornings. Many kids are returning to in-person learning. Some workers are being called to the office. And even if you don’t have something making you get out of bed, now might still be the moment.
“We kind of have to just do it ourselves, because we don’t know what’s coming next,” says Eric Komo, a manager with software company Leadpages, who lives in Roseville, Minn.

In the early days of the pandemic, he took advantage of the freedom, ditching his early-morning bike ride in favor of snoozing. It took a pandemic puppy to shock him and his husband back to a better routine. Boba, the 10-pound Shih Tzu the couple got in August last year, wakes up at 6 a.m. No exceptions.
Now the couple keeps a strict 10 p.m. bedtime, and they spend their mornings sharing coffee, reading newsletters and running outside together. Mr. Komo says he feels more energized.
“Secretly we were very grateful,” he says. “It got our day started and kind of opened up time in the morning that we didn’t know we needed.”
One of Mr. Komo’s colleagues at Leadpages, Bob Sparkins, seems a little less convinced. He has loved sleeping in until 8 a.m. during the pandemic.

“I know it’s healthier,” he says of shifting to earlier mornings, as his two kids transfer from their at-home pandemic learning pod back to school. Then he recalls how packing daily lunches feels. “Sisyphean.”
Mr. Sparkins has been prepping for the transition by setting a timer on his television so it automatically turns off by 10:30 p.m.—the effectiveness of the cue varies depending on how good the show is—and filling the freezer with home-cooked, easy-to-grab food, like pancakes for quick breakfasts. He has also talked to his boss about coming in a little late. The pandemic showed flexibility doesn’t have to impact productivity, he says.
How to get going
The sleep researchers I talked to would approve. They made me feel infinitely better about my own habits—so much so that I considered sharing some of their findings with my husband, in hopes of tempering all those loving but slightly condescending looks.

“A lot of people think, ‘Oh, you’re just lazy because you get up late,’ ” says Elise Facer-Childs, a research fellow at Monash University in Melbourne, Australia, who has studied 
night owls. “But there’s actually really clear scientific evidence behind these differences.”
Still, she acknowledges we’re living in a morning person’s world. To shift earlier, start by getting into bed 15 minutes earlier than usual, says Rebecca Robbins, a sleep scientist at Brigham and Women’s Hospital in Boston. Cut out screen time at least 30 minutes before bed, and quit with the snooze button, which just interrupts the flow of natural sleep, she says.
Once you’re up, head outside. Exposure to light will help reset your circadian rhythm. After two weeks, you’ll feel good, Dr. Robbins says.
Being awake is only half the battle. You also need a solid morning routine, says Wendy Ellin, a workplace productivity consultant based in Atlanta.
“Do you want to live accidentally or do you want to live intentionally?” she asks. “Accidentally makes me nervous.”
Her own morning routine is a 45-minute eye-opener that includes meditating, sipping hot water with lemon, writing in a gratitude journal and stretching (a regimen I find both awe-inspiring and terrifying). She promises a mere 7 minutes is enough—just think about what motivates and focuses you. Do three yoga poses, turn on your coffee machine, pet your dog. Whatever you do, don’t log on to your work email, she advises.
“It’s more people needing your attention,” she says. “That stuff just starts to swirl in your head.” Save it for when you’ve had a little time to adjust to the waking world.

Add a buffer
Earlier in the pandemic, Edwin Akrong fell into the habit of rolling out of bed and heading straight to video calls on his computer. The “cold start” was jarring, says the Brooklyn, N.Y., resident, a co-founder and chief product officer at communication startup Katch.
“You’re not in the flow,” he says.
He realized he needed a buffer between sleep and work. These days, he wakes as early as 5:30 to fit in a run before meetings with colleagues in India..

Melissa Moore

Feature | 06/20/2018

Melissa Moore Elected VP of Graduate School of Arts & Sciences Council

The Graduate School of Arts and Sciences Council (GSASC) represents the interests of graduate students at University of Virginia. As GSASC’s Vice President of Administration, 4th year Economics PhD student Melissa Moore helps run the council and organize events for GSASC. Melissa was elected to the Vice President position this May, after serving for a year as the Initiatives Committee Co-Chair. In that position, Melissa led a review of funding issues affecting graduate students at UVA and helped kick-start a GSASC Research Grant program. In Spring 2018, the GSASC Research Grant provided grants of up to $1,000 for ten students in the graduate school, including Economics student Emily Cook. Graduate students will continue to have the opportunity to apply for the grants every semester.  When asked why she, as a busy graduate student, would seek out this additional responsibility, Melissa explains that “serving on GSASC has helped me become connected to the university community. I’ve been able to meet graduate students from other departments and learn more about the administration of a research institution. I think it’s important for graduate students to have a voice at the university and I’m happy to contribute my time towards furthering that goal.”

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Feature | 08/12/2016

Is Working Abroad for you

Test Your IQ (International Quotient) to See If Working Abroad Is for You

Thinking about working overseas? Take this quiz to see if it working abroad is for you. (You may need to log into Handshake to access this article). 

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Feature | 09/23/2016

Networking for Economics majors- Part 2 of 2

Part 2 of two articles for Economics majors, written by Professor Bill Conerly.

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Feature | 08/24/2018

Opportunity to Attend Davos and the World Economic Forum!

The Credit Suisse Research Institute (CSRI) Academy Challenge is underway and we didn’t want your candidates to miss out on an outstanding prize:

This year's winner will get the incredible opportunity to take part in the Credit Suisse Event at the 2019 edition of the World Economic Forum in Davos, Switzerland where you can engage in discussions on the most pressing global issues with the world's top leaders.


The CSRI Academy Challenge is set over 2 stages and open to all university students and recent grads interested in shaping the global agenda.
See all the available prizes here. Enter stage 1  of the Challenge until September 30!

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Feature | 01/06/2022

Barrons Shares Its "Best Job in America"

The ‘Best Job in America’ Pays up to $125,000 a Year—and Has 10,000 Job Openings

This article originally appeared on MarketWatch.

Most people want to find a job that keeps up with inflation, provides some level of flexibility, but they also want to be happy. After all, most Americans spend at least eight hours a day working—and often without paid time off.

It’s the $125,000 question in an increasingly unpredictable labor market: How can you have it all? Is there a job that comes with the prospect of a six-figure income, high job satisfaction and has enough job openings to make it a real possibility?

Workers quit their jobs at record pace in November, suggesting that people are fed up. The number of quits increased by 370,000 to a record 4.5 million in November. The “quits rate” rose to 3% from 2.8% in October. 

At the same time, job openings fell by 529,000 to 10.6 million on the last day of November, the Labor Department said this week. Economists polled by The Wall Street Journal had forecast a gain to 11.1 million vacancies.

Computer scientists remain in high demand

Companies are always keen to use intel to improve efficiency and learn more about their customers and, so, computer scientists are in high demand. They are also one of the privileged professions to have the opportunity to work remotely.

Java developers are No. 1 on Glassdoor’s “50 Best Jobs in America” for 2021. They typically work at startups focused on the creation of a variety of web applications to go to market and to fill existing customer orders, the careers website said.

They boast a salary range of $69,000 to $125,000 and have a median base annual salary of more than $93,000. They had a 4.2 out of 5.0 job rating, and there are approximately 10,103 job openings for Java developers.

Java developers ideally have a bachelor’s degree in computer science with a professional IT certification, and are required to have expert level Java programming, plus experience in database management and computer architecture.

Data scientists were No. 2 on the list

They were followed by data scientists at No. 2 ($113,736 median annual base salary) and product managers at No. 3 ($121,107), enterprise architects at No. 4 ($131,361) and devops engineers at No. 5 ($110,003).

Data scientists and software developers use programming language such as Python, followed by R, SQL, Hadoop and the more well-known Java. Product managers are responsible for the strategy and blueprint of a product or product line.

An enterprise architect is responsible for a company’s entire IT infrastructure, while a devops engineer is proficient in both engineering and coding, and creates and implements systems software, and improves existing systems.

These computer scientist positions are in high demand across all industries, career consultants say, particularly in Silicon Valley companies such as Meta (ticker: FB), Alphabet (GOOG, GOOGL), and Microsoft (MSFT), among many others.

Three factors comprise Glassdoor’s score

The “Glassdoor Job Score” is determined by weighing three factors equally: Earning potential (median annual base salary), overall job satisfaction rating and number of job openings. C-suite and intern level jobs were excluded from this report.

For a job title to be considered, it must receive at least 100 salary reports and at least 100 job satisfaction ratings shared by U.S.-based employees in one year. Results represent job titles that rate highly among all of those three categories.

The “Glassdoor Job Score” is determined by weighing three factors equally: Earning potential (median annual base salary), overall job satisfaction rating and—of critical interest—number of job openings.

But computer scientists have competition. A separate report by the U.S. News & World Report on the best jobs of the year lists physician assistant as No. 1 ($112,260 median salary and 39,300 openings). Software developers were No. 2.

Write to editors@barrons.com

Feature | 03/19/2020

School Boards and the Racial Gap in Education Finance

Brett Fischer presented a paper, "No Spending Without Representation: School Boards and the Racial Gap in Education Finance," at the AEFP's 45th Annual Conference Program . To address the question of whether a lack of minority representation on school boards hurts minority students, he used detailed school-level data from a large capital investment program to evaluate whether minority school board members increase spending on minority students. His instrumental variables estimates, which leverage exogenous variation on school board election ballots to deliver causal effects, show that minority school board officials allocate the marginal dollar to schools with high levels of poverty and nonwhite enrollment, and those investments raise student achievement in the medium-term. His analysis suggests that improving minority representation on school boards could help combat persistent racial gaps in education finance and achievement. 

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Feature | 01/24/2018


"The majority of applications for many jobs never get seen by a human. If you've ever submitted an application through a company's website, there's a strong chance that your resume was screened—and likely rejected—by an automated system. Here are some tips to help make sure that your resume makes it through in future, so that it can at least get its six seconds with a real live human." - Phil Stott


Click here to read the rest of the article. 

Feature | 10/06/2020

Winners of Snavely Outstanding Summer Paper Award

The UVA Economics Department is delighted to announce the winners of the Snavely Awards for Outstanding Summer Paper: Moonju Cho, for “Multi-homing Consumers and Bundling of Contents”; Yutong (Harriet) Chen, for “Gender Gaps and Discrimination in the Gig Economy”; and Ben Chenault, for “Land Conservation and the Opportunity Cost of Agricultural Production: Evidence from the Renewable Fuel Standard.”  Each winner receives a cash award and certificate in recognition of their achievement. The pool of submissions this year was outstanding. Congratulations and keep up the excellent work!



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Feature | 11/20/2018

Alumni Spotlight: Joy Fan

Alumni Spotlight: JOY FAN, Media Relations & Marketing Associate at the American Enterprise Institute 


Life at UVA and since graduating: 

Joy graduated from the University of Virginia in 2017 with degrees in Economics and Art History. While at UVA, Joy was the president of the Rhapsody Ballet Ensemble while she pursued her personal interests in business and art. Some of her favorite economics courses were Money and Banking and Environmental Economics, although she enjoyed several public policy-focused economics courses.


She currently works at the American Enterprise Institute. She serves as the liaison between the press and over 30 AEI scholars in economic, financial services, tech, and healthcare policy.


What are your job’s responsibilities?

  • 35% is pitching to reporters–sending research to print and broadcast reporters
  • 35% fielding media requests (connecting scholars to media)
  • 30% staffing media crews and events, updating media contact database, tracking press interactions for analysis later


Joy’s tips for students:

  • Reach out to alumni–they always have good insights to share if not more help
  • Don’t forget your resume and cover letter serve as writing samples 
  • Get as much writing experience as possible. Almost every job requires good writing skills, whether it be in the form of a report or memo, or even just as communication between colleagues.
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Feature | 10/24/2022

What is an Information Session and Why Should I Attend?

Thanks to our friends at UCBerkeley, below is some solid information about employer information sessions and why the ECO encourages you to attend these programs. Read on or see the original article here.

Information Sessions

Each fall, employers come to campus to host info sessions. Given all the info available on the web, do you really need to attend?

Only if you want a job! -- especially a job with an employer whose organizational culture and management style are compatible with your own values and interests. So how will attending a company info session help? These sessions offer an unmatched opportunity to:

  • Get a feel for the organization, its people and culture.
  • Have the opportunity to determine if you would be a good fit.
  • Learn about the positions available.
  • Learn how your position fits into the larger organization.

All of this adds to the information available on the website and will help you explain in an interview the congruence between your goals and values and their culture -- in essence the nature of the critical "fit" employers are looking for.

In addition, info sessions constitute a rare opportunity to make a personal connection within the organization while at the same time demonstrating your sincere interest in it as a potential employer. It's always helpful to say you went to the information session during your interview or to mention in your cover letter that you met specific representatives and can therefore credibly describe why you are interested in the job and company. All these actions make you seem informed, well-prepared, and thoughtful in your career plan.

What to expect

Many companies hold information sessions on campus during the recruiting season in order to explain the job opportunities they have available and offer more information about the company and its organizational culture.

Most info sessions range from 1-2 hours and consist of a company presentation where current employees explain the values and mission of the company followed by an opportunity for students to talk to company representatives about the company and ask any pertinent questions. Employer reps are often recent grads able to describe what you might expect during your first couple of years should you join the organization.

How to prepare

  • Research what the company does, specializes in, and the job opportunities they offer, especially at Cal.
  • Be knowledgeable of competitors in the industry and how this company views itself in comparison.
  • Learn about the industry so you understand exactly what the companies do and the expectations for entry-level professionals.

Think about what's important to you and what you want to get out of the information session. This is your chance to interact with company employees and hear about work experiences. If you don't have a clear idea about the company or the job description, it would really help to do your research beforehand so you can ask deeper questions you really want answers to.

Oftentimes, people don't find information sessions helpful because they go there unprepared and don't feel like they can ask questions or talk to the representatives because they don't know anything about the company.

It's always a good idea to bring a resume in case they accept resume drops. With your resume, they may also record your attendance at the information session - helpful when you apply to interview with the company.

How to make the most of it

To maximize the value of an information session, pay attention to what is said during the company presentation. Typically you learn a tremendous amount about the firm, its mission, its services or products, and what type of culture and environment exists at the firm. Also, the information you can draw from these sessions can be used to craft more effective cover letters or can be used to come up with additional questions about the company to be asked during the interview.

In order to optimize the experience at an information session:

  • Think of questions to ask representatives that build on the information presented.
  • Talk to a few representatives of the company in order to get a better feel for the company.
  • Make sure your voice is heard, but not at the expense of a peer - you want to demonstrate respect to reinforce that you are a team player.
  • Ask well-thought-out questions based on your research.
  • Think on your feet and ask relevant questions based on the flow of conversation.
  • Only when there is a noticeable break should you change the subject.
  • The answers to your questions help build your sense of the job and company and determine if it is something of interest to you.
  • Wait to formally say goodbye to a representative before you leave the information session or walk away.

It is valuable to ask for a business card or contact information in case you have any further questions, and also so you can remember names if you interview with the company in the future. These conversations with company representatives help build your network. Networking with numerous companies and representatives gives tremendous insight in multiple careers, industries, job opportunities, and illustrates your genuine interest come interview time.

What you gain

  • Expanded Network - This is an opportunity to create targeted contacts that could be helpful in the future.
  • Understand employers' corporate culture - Speaking with representatives helps you determine whether or not you are a good fit for the company.

Visualize an information session as a way of interviewing the firm and finding out if they are a good employer to consider working for. You'll be more knowledgeable about the company, job, and industry, and have greater confidence in interviews. Also, during information sessions you get a chance to meet and talk to peers who may be interested in similar jobs, companies, or industries.

Info sessions also make you a better applicant. In addition to demonstrating your interest, they are a great opportunity to learn more about what they look for in a candidate. Think about how you can use what you've learned to highlight the aspects of your background and experiences (e.g., leadership or teamwork) that fit their conception of what a strong candidate looks like. Now that you know what they're looking for, you can demonstrate these qualities in your resume, cover letter, and interview.

How to find them

Login to Handshake, select the Events tab and then search for Info Sessions. Check back periodically for new sessions. Space is often limited, and you are encouraged to "Join Event" if you plan to attend.




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Feature | 12/06/2018

7 Jobs with the Best Employment Prospects in 2019

New technologies are popping up daily, and automation is on the rise. The result is a labor market that’s evolving at a dizzying rate, with certain roles becoming redundant and others (some of which didn’t exist a decade ago) becoming increasingly important. It goes without saying that if you want to remain relevant amid all the flux, the answer lies with the latter positions. 

Below, you’ll find the seven occupations that employers will be placing the most value on in 2019 and beyond. If you’re already working in these fields, then you’re in luck—the future looks especially bright for you. And if you’re currently considering a career change, or you’re about to embark on studies, then take note—these are the 2019 jobs that are most worth pursuing. 

1. Data Scientists

Become a data scientist or analyst, and you’ll have companies everywhere begging you to work for them. As industries across the board start to realize the importance of basing business decisions on collected data, they’ll be looking to hire professionals who are adept at using machine learning and other digital tools to conduct statistical analyses and derive meaningful insights from numbers. Those professionals with expertise in AI, data visualization and communication, and big data storage are especially sought after. And as there’s a major skills shortage in this field across the U.S., data science specialists can demand a rather high salary.

2. Web and Software Developers

For obvious reasons, the IT and computer science sectors will continue to see major hiring increases, and two roles that aren’t going anywhere are those of web and software developer. The need for professionals who can research, design, code, and maintain websites and software programs is driven by the growth of the e-commerce market and the rising demand for mobile apps, advanced operating systems, and online games. As the digital world continues to develop at a rapid rate, a growing number of businesses and government entities are relying on the services of developers to keep up with the times.

3. Sales Representatives with Specialized Knowledge

Another one of the 2019 jobs that’s bound to hold a lot of heat for jobseekers is that of sales representative, but particularly within novel, niche fields. With the retail landscape evolving rapidly, and new products and services being developed daily, businesses are finding that they need sales professionals with a unique understanding of their offering in order to sell it to clients and consumers effectively. For instance, as the demand for green technology grows, companies involved in this sector are calling for sales representatives who are familiar with all the intricacies of renewable energy products, like solar panels, so they can spell out the benefits of them to potential customers and business partners.

4. Data Protection and Privacy Officers

New regulations that govern how businesses collect, store, and use consumers’ personal information are encouraging companies to recruit professionals who can help them comply with these requirements. The General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR), for example, might only apply in EU member states, but it’s impacting all businesses that offer services to EU-based citizens. Consequently, even enterprises in the U.S. are recognizing the need to hire someone who can assist with implementing processes that will ensure they remain on the right side of the law. In addition to data protection professionals focused on consumer privacy, companies will also increasingly be looking to hire information security analysts to help them safeguard their own networks and systems against the growing threat of cyberattacks. 

5. Health Practitioners

Needless to say, we’re likely always going to need the services of healthcare providers, but the demand for these professionals is projected to grow quite substantially over the next few years for one key reason: the Baby Boomers are starting to reach the age when health becomes more of a concern, and because the size of this generation is so large, there’s naturally a need for more health practitioners to care for them all. More specifically, it’s predicted that those working as home health aides, physician assistants, nurse practitioners, medical assistants, and physical therapists will be especially sought after in the future—all of these promising 2019 jobs are included on the United States Bureau of Labor Statistics’ list of the 20 occupations that are expected to grow the fastest between 2016 and 2026.

6. Regulatory Agents and Compliance Attorneys

As more businesses head into uncharted territory and experiment with products and services that rely on AI and other cutting-edge technologies, they’ll no doubt be looking to bring in professionals who can guide them with regards to legalities and ensure they’re abiding by industry rules. A compliance attorney, for instance, will assist a company by managing risks, developing corporate policies, and anticipating legal issues that may arise down the line. By doing so, they create room for innovation while warding off potential trouble. The hiring increases in this field can also be attributed to the fact that organizations across many sectors are being pushed to adapt to new, ever-evolving government regulations, and they’re battling to do so without the help of expert counsel.

7. Workers in the Renewable Energy Sector

Thanks to the (increasingly loud) call for sustainable sources of power, many of the 2019 jobs that have excellent employment prospects fall within the renewable energy sector. Along with energy engineers, wind turbine technicians and PV solar panel installersshould have no problem finding work in future—in fact, these are two of the fastest growing occupations in the U.S., with the first expected to grow by 96 percent between 2016 and 2026 and the latter by an impressive 105 percent (according to the United States Bureau of Labor Statistics’ Occupational Outlook Handbook). While these professions initially saw boosts predominantly in California, they’ve grown in popularity throughout the U.S. as more states recognize the importance of adopting green technologies.  


Read more

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Feature | 04/16/2023

A College Student's Guide to Connecting with Someone on LinkedIn

This article was written by Rikin Shah for LinkedIn
(Note from the ECO: The ECO endorses the content of this article, but found typos and grammatical errors in the original piece. We have attempted to correct many of them in our copy below.)

Let's say you've found your dream company and identified someone you think you would like to connect with; now for the approach. How can you be heard when you reach out to someone at your dream company? The goal here is not to directly ask for an internship but rather to build a genuine and useful relationship with the company.

I have fallen prey to this many times. I have the business card or email address of someone, but somehow never knew what to say. I wanted to find a formula that was bulletproof, something that would lead to an internship instead of in their unread box. I hated the idea of reaching out to someone without really having much to give. But if you are a young professional or student, what you can give someone with an established career is the opportunity to give back to someone younger. If you are looking to land an internship, you're better off framing the email as an opportunity for them to give you advice rather than asking for a job. Every single email you send and conversation you have with a potential advocate, you need to reframe the context so it's about them. It’s not about you, it’s about the other person.

Cold Approaches

Let’s face it, emails are essential to connecting with anyone today. But we all know that it’s hard to send an email that stands out.

The key to sending an email that elicits a response is to make a reasonable and personable ask. Imagine a stranger walking up to you on the street and asking you for a job. You would be reluctant. But let’s say they asked you for advice on getting a job, you’d be much more willing to provide the latter.

Consider two cold emails you can send to someone:

Hi! My name is Rikin and I am a sophomore marketing student at the University of Texas at Austin. I am interested in working in the outdoor gear industry. I am planning on being a product designer and building camping gear. Are you looking for any interns? If so, I would love to work with the team. It’s always been my dream to work for an outdoor gear company. I think my experience being an honor roll student and being involved in my business fraternity would qualify me to be on your team.


Hey Bartos,

I saw that you are involved in the outdoor gear industry in Austin. I think it’s incredible that you made the switch from working in banking to living the dream of designing camping gear.

As an adventurer at heart, I have been interested in ending up in the outdoor industry after I graduate from UT Austin. I was wondering if you might be willing to take 20 minutes to hop on a call and maybe advise someone who’s in the same shoes you were in 5 years ago?

The differences are subtle, but together they make a difference.

Asking for Advice:

People love to give advice. Instead of asking questions ask for advice. People love to give advice, just ask your drunk uncle at Thanksgiving dinner. The goal is to turn this relationship from a unilateral connection where you are asking for help to a more bilateral mentorship relationship. Get them invested in you.

Be sure to have pointed questions to ask. Don’t ask for general advice, ask for advice on something specific such as finding your first internship, etc.

Be Humble:

College students often hide behind their qualifications. They use their GPA, school, or leadership experience to build credibility. Unless your credentials include singlehandedly saving the world’s whale population, your credentials don’t entitle you to someone else’s time. All that matters is your ability to work hard and offer value, everything else is a proxy. If the first paragraph does not talk about why your email relates to your recipient, you’ve already lost the game.


Throughout your school career, you’ve been taught to hide your vulnerabilities. But if you step back, your dream company is going to be fine without you, but the company you work for will have much more impact on you. It’s okay to be vulnerable and admit it. It’s okay to ask if this career is going to be the right fit for you.

Elzinga Flash Seminar

Feature | 08/02/2017


"You feel nervous about your career stories, and the fact that you have to tell stories in interviews drives you bananas. You're not sure whether your stories are even any good. You don't know if what you did was even that special." -Natalie Fisher 

Click here to read the rest of the article

Elzinga Flash Seminar

Feature | 08/12/2016

A Healthier Work Day to Improve Productivity

Read about how one company in Japan is encouraging it's employees to make healthy changes to improve their productivity. (you may need to log into Handshake to access this article). 

Feature | 03/20/2020

Hundanol Kebede presents at PACDEV

Hundanol Kebede presented his paper, titled “The gains from market integration: The welfare effects of new rural roads in Ethiopia,” at the Pacific Conference for Development Economics (PacDev), held at UC-Berkeley. In the paper, he estimates the welfare gains from a massive rural road expansion project that doubled the total road length in the country between 2011 and 2015.  He uses tools from international trade theory and detailed household level data to quantify household-level welfare gains from the road expansion and how much of those gains can be attributed to trade mechanisms. He shows that the road expansion increased market integration and village specialization in comparative advantage crops. One of the paper’s novel contributions is that it shows how increased road connectivity would cause household production decisions to be dictated by market prices rather than consumption preferences – commonly known as separability. That is, road connectivity decreases the correlation between household land allocation across different crops and budget allocation across crops. This leads to significant efficiency gains because land will be reallocated to crops that have higher market value. 

Elzinga Flash Seminar

Feature | 04/06/2018



by Sarah Steenrod


While it seems like just yesterday (okay, so more like 13 years ago) I was an intern at Neiman Marcus in Las Vegas, the lessons I learned and experiences I had a during that pivotal time in my college and professional career are crystal clear. Here are some tips that will help make your internship a success:

1.      Set goals. Having personal and professional goals can help you make the most of your summer, stay on track, and know if you have achieved what you set out to do.

2.      Ask questions. An internship is a learning process and you may need to seek clarification along the way.

3.      Participate in all intern and company activities that you are invited to. It’s a great way to meet fellow interns and people at the company who are investing their time in your experience.

4.      Share your ideas. People want to know what you think, so speak up!

5.      If you finish your work, ask for more. By taking initiative, you may end up with an awesome project or learning experience.

6.      Pack your lunch. You’ll save money and calories. It’s absolutely fine to join your colleagues and treat yourself to lunch every once in a while, but you will thank yourself at the end of the summer if you don’t blow your paychecks on takeout sushi.

7.      Dress for the job you want, not the one you have. Always be sure to follow the dress code. Make sure your clothes are clean, neat, and pressed

8.      Get a good night’s rest. If you’re used to going to bed at 2 a.m., the sound of the alarm at 6 a.m. is going to be a rude awakening (literally and figuratively). No one at your workplace will care if you’re tired, so don’t look or act tired.

9.      Consider your internship a three-month interview. This is your opportunity to make the most of each day with the potential of getting a job offer at the end.

10. Ask people if you can be of help to them. You might think you don’t have a lot to offer, but perhaps one of your colleagues has a child that is considering your university and would love to hear your perspective.

11. Explore the city…and the food. If you’re in Cleveland, don’t miss the West Side Market and the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame. St. Louis is famous for fried ravioli. In Houston, be sure to try the BBQ.

12. Exercise. Take a brisk walk, ride a bike, run, do yoga! Do whatever you like, just get moving!

13. Drink water. That’s what the water coolers are for! Eight 8-ounce glasses day is what’s recommended, but if that sounds like a lot, just start with a couple glasses a day. It also helps to get a water bottle that you really like.

14. If you make a mistake, acknowledge it, find a way to fix it, and move on. Don’t make excuses.

15. Connect with alumni from your school. Use your university’s alumni club. Tap into the LinkedIn Find Alumni tool.

16. Check in regularly with your parents, family members, and friends and let them know how your internship is going….they will appreciate it.

17. Say please. It’s amazing how many people will be willing to help you if you ask nicely.

18. Follow all computer rules and lock your computer when you step away from your desk. Also, if your company has a social media policy, refrain from posting on Facebook during work hours.

19. Ask for feedback. Some supervisors will be good at giving you positive and constructive feedback, while others may be less forthcoming. If they know it’s important to you, they may be more likely to give it.

20. Avoid office gossip. If someone talks about others to you, they are probably talking about you to others.

21. Pay attention to your experiences, reflect on them, and jot down a few notes. Your worst on-the-job experience may someday be your best interview story. The trick is remembering all the details.

22. Wear sunscreen. Seriously

23. Be present and enjoy the experience!

24. Keep in touch. Don’t wait until you need something to e-mail your former supervisor. Send an e-mail every once in a while to check in and let them know how you’re doing.

25. Thank people and let them know how they impacted your life and career. A handwritten note is a very nice touch.


Sarah Steenrod is Director of Undergraduate Career Consultation and Programs in the Fisher College of Business at The Ohio State University.

Courtesy of the National Association of Colleges and Employers.

Feature | 01/02/2023

Ross Prize Awarded to Finance Scholars Ana Fostel and John Geanakoplos

Feature | 04/22/2020

Haruka Takayama Hasegawa Wins an All-University Graduate Teaching Award

Haruka Takayama Hasegawa, winner of an All-University Graduate Teaching Award for her dedication to undergraduate teaching and outstanding achievement in that area, is recognized in UVA Today's article, "There's Something That Makes These Graduate Instructor's Special."

Feature | 09/19/2022

Career Advice from Mindy Kaling

Mindy Kaling Can Make You Laugh, But She Also Has Career Advice for You

By: Stav Ziv article from The Muse

Never have I ever admitted, until now, how eager I am to binge the new season of a teen dramedy (I am…not a teen). But Never Have I Ever—brainchild of Mindy Kaling and Lang Fisher—is too good and refreshingly weird not to be excited about, no matter how old you are. (Weird because, for example, notoriously confrontational tennis pro John McEnroe narrates the high school trials and tribulations of an Indian American teenager in California, what of it?) It’s one of the best teen shows I can remember watching—where most of the characters, minus Paxton, actually look like teens—and I’m not surprised Kaling had something to do with it.

An alum of Dartmouth who got her foot in the door on The Office, Kaling has spent her career painstakingly carving a path for herself in a very white, very male industry where she was, as she often talks about, a “diversity hire” who came up through NBC’s diversity program. “For a long time I was really embarrassed about that,” she told The Guardian. “It took me a while to realize that I was just getting the access other people had because of who they knew.”

She’s had to work just as hard to get onscreen as more than a forgettable sidekick as she has to get in the writers’ room. “My career has only become what it has out of sheer need, not because I wanted it that way. I knew if I wanted to perform I was going to have to write it myself,” she told Entertainment Weekly for a 2013 cover story. In a 2017 cover story of her own, Reese Witherspoon recounted a conversation she’d had with Kaling. “Don’t you ever get exhausted by always having to create your own roles?” Witherspoon had asked. Kaling replied: “Reese, I’ve never had anything that I didn’t create for myself.”

Well, create she did. After The Office—where she played Kelly Kapoor and wrote more episodes than anyone else—Kaling created and starred in six seasons of The Mindy Project. More recently, she wrote, produced, and played a leading role in the 2019 movie Late Night, loosely based on her own story as the lone woman and sole person of color in a writers’ room.

Never Have I Ever, which draws on Kaling’s formative experiences as the daughter of immigrants, takes representation to the next level. Not only did Kaling create roles for a diverse cast—and hire a previously unknown Tamil Canadian actress, the excellent Maitreyi Ramakrishnan, to take the helm as Devi through an open call—but she also filled the writers’ room with young Indian women. Together they shaped characters and storylines for a show that’s have inspired some mixed feelings, but also been hailed as a “win” and a “watershed moment.”

If you, too, want to know more about Kaling as you watch this new season, here’s a collection of inspiring quotes and real talk on diversity, hard work, success, mentorship, motherhood, and more—all in one place.

  • On the “right” order: “Don’t be scared if you don’t do things in the right order, or if you don’t do some things at all… If you have a checklist, good for you. Structured ambition can sometimes be motivating. But also, feel free to let it go. Yes, my culminating advice from my speech is a song from the Disney animated movie, Frozen.” —Dartmouth University commencement speech 2018
  • On dreaming of success: “I don’t remember lying up at night thinking, the dream I have is something where no one who looks like me has ever succeeded. I just thought that I would somehow find a way to succeed.” —The New York Times Magazine
  • On possible paths forward: “Don’t trust any one story of how to become successful.” —Dartmouth University commencement speech 2018
  • On writing your own part: “Write your own part. It is the only way I’ve gotten anywhere. It is much harder work, but sometimes you have to take destiny into your own hands. It forces you to think about what your strengths really are, and once you find them, you can showcase them, and no one can stop you.” ―Is Everyone Hanging Out Without Me? (And Other Concerns) by Mindy Kaling
  • On not letting people stop you: “People get scared when you try to do something, especially when it looks like you’re succeeding. People do not get scared when you’re failing. It calms them. But when you’re winning, it makes them feel like they’re losing or, worse yet, that maybe they should've tried to do something too, but now it’s too late. And since they didn’t, they want to stop you. You can’t let them.” —Why Not Me? by Mindy Kaling
  • On the stigma of being a “diversity hire”: “It used to really embarrass me because I thought I had the scarlet letter on me. ‘Diversity hire’ inherently meant, ‘less talented but fulfilling that quota.’... [I used to think that] if you’re funny, it’s funny and you’ll get noticed. But that isn’t true. If you don’t know the right people to get into the rooms, you will just never be seen. I love talking about it in the movie because it’s really real, and the stigma’s really real, and it truly is a helpful thing. It helped me personally… I really admire NBC for doing that program. I think if more people like me who are successful after coming through something like that talk about how the experience helped them, then there will be less of a stigma to it.” —Deadline
  • On the fear of being replaced: “It terrified me that they were interviewing another person of color or another woman because I’d be like, ‘Okay I’m going to get fired’ because you only needed one. I had a lot of growing up to do in terms of not operating from a fear of getting replaced.” —Time Magazine
  • On hard work: “Work hard, know your shit, show your shit, and then feel entitled. Listen to no one except the two smartest and kindest adults you know, and that doesn’t always mean your parents. If you do that, you will be fine.” —Why Not Me? by Mindy Kaling
  • On confidence: “People talk about confidence without ever bringing up hard work. That’s a mistake. I know I sound like some dour older spinster on Downton Abbey who has never felt a man’s touch and whose heart has turned to stone, but I don’t understand how you could have self-confidence if you don’t do the work… Because confidence is like respect; you have to earn it.” —Why Not Me? by Mindy Kaling
  • On imposter syndrome: “I don’t feel imposter syndrome and the reason I don’t is that I work so hard. I feel imposter syndrome happens when people feel unqualified for their jobs. Before I got my own show, I put in eight years at The Office. I wrote 24 episodes of TV. I was an executive producer at the end of it and I’d been a staff writer at the beginning. Then I did my show for six years, did 117 episodes. I feel like I’m a real A-student. I feel like I really prepare for my work. Again, it’s not all successes. A lot of times I failed, but I do feel qualified when I move up the ranks, like, ‘OK, I put in my time. I put in my, whatever it is, 10,000 hours. I feel qualified to do this next thing.’” —E!
  • On the myth of being “bad with names”: “I don’t think it should be socially acceptable for people to say they are ’bad with names.’ No one is bad with names. That is not a real thing. Not knowing people’s names isn’t a neurological condition; it’s a choice. You choose not to make learning people’s names a priority. It’s like saying, ‘Hey, a disclaimer about me: I’m rude.’” ―Is Everyone Hanging Out Without Me? (And Other Concerns) by Mindy Kaling
  • On not hiding the effort: “It’s really refreshing to work with women who don’t have to conceal how hard they work. I think the process, the work, used to be seen as something you hide, because everyone puts a premium on being so effortless… I think that’s one of the nicest changes in the last five years: Women don’t have to be these alluring, mysterious cats who get things done and you don’t know how hard they work, how hard they work out, what they’re eating. We now celebrate the fact that women can say, ‘Yeah, I sacrificed this, I have to do this….’ It isn’t effortless.” —Glamour
  • On losing your temper: “It took me a long time to realize that when you’re 24 and are losing your temper, it’s sort of adorable because you have to give up. You don’t have any power. But if you’re the boss and lose your temper, you’re just a tyrant. I still can have a short fuse, but I deal with it in a different way.” —The New York Times Magazine
  • On being kind: “The best advice I ever got is probably from [The Office creator] Greg Daniels. One piece of advice he gave me, which seems very simple but is very hard to follow all the time, is ‘Be kind.’ If you’re in a room with, a bunch of sardonic, East Coast-educated impatient writers, it’s very hard to show kindness. And I think that especially graduating from comedy writer to running a show where, like, I’m a manager, I can be sued for, like, human resources issues—that’s not something that I came into this doing—so like being kind to people, and listening to people tell you about their families, and their lives.” —AOL talk
  • On her evolution: “I think in my twenties I was only focused on, OK, I don’t want to get fired. I want to be successful, and I was only thinking about myself. In no way was I thinking about things that are the most important to me now, which is my health, holding the door open behind me for other people.” —Marie Claire
  • On being successful: “Part of being successful is that you start to spend your career with people who are way more successful than you. It’s a blessing, because I get to learn from them.” —Glamour
  • On mentorship: “When you’re a woman and a woman of color who is also an employer, you can’t just be someone who employs people. You also have to be a mentor. It’s sort of your responsibility because there are so few of us.” —The New York Times Magazine
  • On opening doors for others: “Especially during these new shows, I realized that the only way that people will have these kinds of opportunities—there’s literally been so little change for women of color—is if people like me make a difference. So it’s just the fact of the matter. We have to be the ones to open the doors for other people.” —Deadline
  • On deciding to become a mother: “I think that it’s hard when you have a career that you really love to find the exact right time to have a baby. I think if you wanna be a mother, that’s a great decision. If you don’t, that’s also a great decision. For me, it was a wonderful thing to have done before I turn 40. I recommend it to people who also love their careers.” —The View
  • On reprioritizing: “Having a daughter made me realize that, as much as I love my career and I really value and take pride in my work ethic and I’m constantly talking about it, I had to reprioritize the way that I worked and honestly start sacrificing things professionally so that I could be a good mom, which is something I was not used to at all.” —E!
  • On self-care: “It’s funny, that’s a term that maybe three to five years ago—I don’t know if this is because I’m Asian or because I’ve worked since I was 15-years-old—used to have pejorative connotations for me. Like, ‘who has time for self-care? I’m trying to build an empire and be a single mom.’ I think it was during the pandemic, when I was working from home and my children were at home, I decided that was an outdated way of thinking.” —Forbes
  • On running: “I’m always so self-conscious talking about how much I love running because I don’t look like someone who’s athletic or anything. But it has really helped me...It just focuses me and makes me a better writer. I think I’m a friendlier person, a more patient mom.” —Marie Claire
  • On hubris: “I think luxuriating and thinking that you feel successful feels like a little bit of hubris. And in comedy, the minute a character starts thinking they’re celebrated is the minute when something terrible happens to them.” —Deadline
  • On what she wants her legacy to be: “I’ve always felt that I represent the underdog. At this time and this place, as an Indian woman and a single mom, I’ve felt like the kind of person who often does not get to be the lead of a story. I want the stories that I tell, the characters I play and create, to resonate with people who do not see themselves onscreen. When I’m gone and people look at my body of work, they can see it in the context of where I came from and where my family came from and say, ‘Wow, that was the beginning of a ripple effect.’ That people are inspired because they felt that I, in some way, helped move the door open a couple more inches. That would be really incredible to me.” —Glamour

Feature | 01/09/2023

AEA Distinguished Economic Education Award presented to Charles Holt

The AEA Distinguished Education Award acknowledges excellence in economic education at a national level. Recipients are able to demonstrate a sustained and impactful contribution to several areas of economic education. These areas include teaching, the development of curriculum and pedagogy, scholarship of teaching and learning (SoTL) of economics, mentoring of students and young faculty, and service at the institution, regional, and state level.


Charlie is one of the outstanding teachers of the University of Virginia Economics Department.  His undergraduate class in Experimental Economics is always oversubscribed by a factor of two.  His experimental lab in the basement of Monroe Hall involves additional students in the production of economic knowledge and has become an academic hangout for our most talented students, both graduate and undergraduate.  Charlie treats his students like colleagues, involving many in his research.


Beyond the grounds of the University of Virginia, in the broader sphere of experimental economists, Charlie is a star – in part because of the way his research has been applied in the classroom.  Charlie’s publications influence not only the field but also the teaching of experimental economics – not to mention the real world of auction design. Charlie’s book, Markets, Games, and Strategic Behavior (Princeton Press) is a model of teaching state of the art material in a way that reflects crystal clear pedagogy.

Elzinga Flash Seminar

Feature | 09/17/2023

How to Write a Cover Letter

Article written by Amy Gallo for Harvard Business Review 


No one likes job hunting. Scouring through online job listings, spiffing up your résuméprepping for grueling interviews — none of it is fun. For many, the most challenging part of the process is writing an effective cover letter. There’s so much conflicting advice out there, it’s hard to know where to start. Do you even need one, especially if you’re applying through an online system?

What the Experts Say

The answer is almost always yes. Sure, there will be times when you’re submitting an application online and you may not be able to include one, but whenever possible, send one, says Jodi Glickman, a communications expert and author of Great on the Job. “It’s your best chance of getting the attention of the HR person or hiring manager and an important opportunity to distinguish yourself from everyone else.” And in a tight job market, setting yourself apart is critical, says John Lees, a UK-based career strategist and author of Knockout CV. Still, as anyone who’s ever written a cover letter knows, it’s not easy to do well. Here are some tips to help.

Do your research first.

Before you start writing, find out more about the company and the specific job you want. Of course, you should carefully read the job description, but also peruse the company’s website, its executives’ Twitter feeds, and employee profiles on LinkedIn. This research will help you customize your cover letter, since you shouldn’t send a generic one. It’ll also help you decide on the right tone. “Think about the culture of the organization you’re applying to,” advises Glickman. “If it’s a creative agency, like a design shop, you might take more risks, but if it’s a more conservative organization, like a bank, you may hold back.”

If at all possible, reach out to the hiring manager or someone else you know at the company before writing your cover letter, advises Lees. You can send an email or a LinkedIn message “asking a smart question about the job.” That way you can start your letter by referencing the interaction. You might say, “Thanks for the helpful conversation last week” or “I recently spoke to so-and-so at your company.” Of course, it’s not always possible to contact someone — or you may not get a response. That’s OK. It’s still worth a try.

Focus it on the future.

While your résumé is meant to be a look back at your experience and where you’ve been, the cover letter should focus on the future and what you want to do, says Glickman. “It can be helpful to think of it as the bridge between the past and the future that explains what you hope to do next and why.” Because of the pandemic there is less of an expectation that you’ll be applying for a job that you’ve done before. “There are millions of people who are making career changes — voluntarily or involuntarily — and need to pivot and rethink how their skill set relates to a different role or industry,” says Glickman. You can use your cover letter to explain the shift you’re making, perhaps from hospitality to marketing, for example. Think of it as an opportunity to sell your transferrable skills.

Open strong.

“People typically write themselves into the letter with ‘I’m applying for X job that I saw in Y place.’ That’s a waste,” says Lees. Instead, lead with a strong opening sentence. “Start with the punch line — why this job is exciting to you and what you bring to the table,” says Glickman. For example, you might write, “I’m an environmental fundraising professional with more than 15 years of experience looking for an opportunity to apply my skills in new ways, and I’d love to bring my expertise and enthusiasm to your growing development team.” Then you can include a sentence or two about your background and your relevant experience, but don’t rehash your résumé.

Chances are the hiring manager or recruiter is reading a stack of these, so you want to catch their attention. But don’t try to be funny. “Humor can often fall flat or sound self-regarding,” says Lees. Stay away from common platitudes, too. “Say something direct and dynamic, such as ‘Let me draw your attention to two reasons why I’d be a great addition to your team.'”

If you have a personal connection with the company or someone who works there, also mention it in the first sentence or two. And always address your letter to someone directly. “With social media, it’s often possible to find the name of a hiring manager,” says Glickman.

Emphasize your personal value.

Hiring managers are looking for people who can help them solve problems. Drawing on the research you did earlier, show that you know what the company does and some of the challenges it faces. These don’t need to be specific but you might mention how the industry has been affected by the pandemic. For example, you might write, “A lot of health care companies are overwhelmed with the need to provide high-quality care while protecting the health and safety of their staff.” Then talk about how your experience has equipped you to meet those needs; perhaps explain how you solved a similar problem in the past or share a relevant accomplishment. You want to provide evidence of the things that set you apart.

Lees points out that there are two skills that are relevant to almost any job right now: adaptability and the ability to learn quickly. If you have brief examples that demonstrate these skills, include those. For example, if you supported your team in the shift to remote work, describe how you did that and what capabilities you drew on.

Convey enthusiasm.

 “When you don’t get hired, it’s usually not because of a lack of skills,” says Glickman. “It’s because people didn’t believe your story, that you wanted the job, or that you knew what you were getting into.” Hiring managers are going to go with the candidate who has made it seem like this is their dream job. So make it clear why you want the position. “Enthusiasm conveys personality,” Lees adds. He suggests writing something like “I’d love to work for your company. Who wouldn’t? You’re the industry leader, setting standards that others only follow.” Don’t bother applying if you’re not excited about some aspect of the company or role.

Watch the tone.

At the same time, don’t go overboard with the flattery or say anything you don’t mean. Authenticity is crucial. “Even if you’ve been out of work for months, and would take any job at this point, you want to avoid sounding desperate,” says Lees. You don’t want your tone to undermine your message, so be professional and mature. A good rule of thumb is to put yourself in the shoes of the hiring manager and think about “the kind of language that the hiring manager would use with one of the company’s customers.” Of course, it can be hard to discern your own tone in writing, so you may need to ask someone to review a draft (which is always a good idea anyway — see advice below). Lees says that he often cuts outs “anything that sounds like desperation” when he’s reviewing letters for clients.

Keep it short.

Much of the advice out there says to keep it under a page. But both Glickman and Lees say even shorter is better. “Most cover letters I see are too long,” says Lees. “It should be brief enough that someone can read it at a glance.” You do have to cover a lot of ground — but you should do it succinctly. This is where asking a friend, former colleague, or mentor to review your letter can be helpful. Ask them to read through it and point out places where you can cut.

Get feedback.

In fact, it’s a great idea to share your cover letter with a few people, says Lees. Rather than sending it off and asking, “What do you think?” be specific about the kind of feedback you want. In particular, request two things. First, ask your friend if it’s clear what your main point is. What’s the story you’re telling? Are they able to summarize it? Second, ask them what’s wrong with the letter. “Other people are more attuned to desperation, overselling, over-modesty, and underselling,” says Lees, and they should be able to point out places where the tone is off.

When you can’t submit a cover letter.

Many companies now use online application systems that don’t allow for a cover letter. You may be able to figure out how to include one in the same document as your résumé, but that’s not a guarantee, especially because some systems only allow for data to be entered into specific boxes. In these cases, use the format you’re given to demonstrate your ability to do the job and your enthusiasm for the role. If possible, you may try to find someone to whom you can send a brief follow-up email highlighting a few key points about your application.

Principles to Remember


  • Have a strong opening statement that makes clear why you want the job and what you bring to the table.
  • Be succinct — a hiring manager should be able to read your letter at a glance.
  • Share an accomplishment that shows you can address the challenges the employer is facing.


  • Try to be funny — too often it falls flat.
  • Send a generic cover letter — customize each one for the specific job.
  • Go overboard with flattery — be professional and mature.


Elzinga Flash Seminar

Feature | 09/29/2016

Top 10 Jobs for Economics Majors

Read about 10 jobs that match up with many of the skills Economics majors are equipped with: https://www.thebalance.com/top-jobs-for-economics-majors-2059650

Note, although this article includes a Top Ten List, the ECO does not claim that these are the "Top Ten" jobs for majors. This list is meant to be one resource in your search and provide food for thought.

Feature | 12/01/2021

The Economics Department Welcomes Its 2021-23 Bridge Fellows

The Department of Economics is pleased to welcome the inaugural cohort of Bridge to the Doctorate Fellows, starting in Fall 2021: Abigail Matthew and Fatimah Shaalan. The Bridge to the Doctorate program is a two-year, post-baccalaureate program, designed to prepare students from groups that are underrepresented in economics for doctoral programs. Fellows have the opportunity to take graduate or advanced undergraduate classes and gain research experience under faculty supervision. The application deadline for the Fall 2022 entering cohort is March 1, 2022. No application fee or standardized test scores are required. For further information and to apply, please visit the link: https://graduate.as.virginia.edu/bridge-doctorate.

Elzinga Flash Seminar

Feature | 08/18/2021

ECO Blog: Virtual Career Fairs

Commerce Career Day Is for All Majors! (Really it is!)

Hello Everyone,

I hope your week is off to a great start! This week I want to speak with you about virtual career fairs. These are great opportunities to meet with employers online. UVA hosts several a year and this fair draws fairly large, established employers. The name here indicates that this fair is sponsored by and hosted by the Commerce School. It is their expectation that all undergraduate students will attend this fair. 

When you click the link above, you will find employers such as American Express, Altria, Bessmer Trust, Capital One, Carmax, Deloitte, Inveture, Genworth, Yext, and ZS Associates. Most of these employers have established training programs and know what their hiring needs are well in advance of next spring/summer.

Employers will hold info sessions with groups, and 1:1 meetings with individual students. Later this week, I'll send a note through collab with the ECO's employer picks for this year's fair, which will be held this Friday, 9/10. Schedule at least an hour in your day to attend if you are internship or job-seeking. And if you're curious, but not ready to job search, the info sessions provide a great opportunity to hang back and listen. Please check out the three links below about approaching the fair. If you are in a full-on job search, I recommend choosing 3-5 employers that are your "must-sees" and schedule around those sessions.

  • Make sure your lighting is good and your mic works in case you choose to speak.
  • If possible, appear in a neat room, or use a virtual background.
  • Dress neatly.
  • Prepare your pitch using VMOCK (AI platform that records your pitch and scores you) and this ECO template and these tips.
  • Have your resume handy to borrow talking points and possibly share with employers.
  • Research the employers that are the most interesting to you and come with questions. You'll find some at the links belowl
  • Be yourself (really!).
  • Send a thank you after the info session of 1:1 session.

All the best,



Vault's Recommendations for Attending a Virtual Career Fair

Participating in a Virtual Fair - from Handshake 

Handshake's Guide to Virtual Fair Attendance

Good Questions to Ask Employers

Better Questions to Ask Employers



Feature | 07/13/2017

Aaron Phipps presents at the APPAM on July 13, 2017

"The Role of Production Uncertainty in Teacher Performance Pay: Theory and Experimental Evidence", presented at the International Conference of the Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management (APPAM) on July 13

Teacher performance incentives have not had consistently positive effects in the U.S. A necessary theoretical and empirical problem is how to design an incentive to induce the optimal allocation of effort among multiple tasks, which is usually modeled by assuming agents know the production function. Unlike some production processes in which output relies solely on worker skill and effort, teaching is distinguished by its complexity and its dependence on the reciprocal effort of students. The result is a context in which individual teachers are uncertain about the net marginal productivity of inputs. The innovation of this paper is to develop a model in which uncertainty about the production process in student learning (“production uncertainty”) is incorporated explicitly in the model of behavior and to assess agent responses to different incentive schemes in a laboratory experiment.

Elzinga Flash Seminar

Feature | 08/30/2016

ARTICLE - Choosing a Career Path: A Collegiate Perspective

This is a guest piece by Elizabeth Santoro, a senior at Northwestern University’s Medill School of Journalism, who will begin her career at a technology company upon graduation.

In my experience, college leaves you with more questions than answers. Entering college you may or may not know what career you want or what direction to take. Either way, college seems to be anything but linear, — it’s more a series of switchbacks and loops.

I thought I would work for some Condé Nast beauty magazine among New York City’s skyscrapers or, on the flip side, dig deep as an investigative reporter. Graduating from the Medill School of Journalism at Northwestern University, I’m on a different spectrum entirely and accepted an offer to work in product marketing for a tech startup.

Click here to read the rest of the article.

Source: By April 20, 2017Talent


Elzinga Flash Seminar

Feature | 02/02/2017


""For students who may be thinking about federal jobs and wondering how the hiring freeze impacts them, we want to highlight a few key points. The hiring freeze remains in place, with a longer-term plan to reduce the size of the federal workforce due from the Office of Personnel Management and the Office of Management and Budget by the end of April."-Dreama Johnson 

Click here to read the rest of the article 

Elzinga Flash Seminar

Feature | 08/17/2019

The Best Ways to Improve Your Communication Skills

The Best Ways to Imrove Your Communication Skills

By: Melanie Pinola
Source: LifeHacker

Illustration for article titled The Best Ways to Improve Your Communication Skills

We learn to talk at an early age, but most of us don’t have formal training on how to effectively communicate with others. That’s unfortunate, because it’s one of the most important life skills there is, and one you use your entire life. Whether you want to have better conversations in your social life or get your ideas across better at work, here are some essential tips for learning to to communicate more effectively.

Watch your body language

You tell your partner you’re open to discussion but your arms are crossed; you say you’re listening but haven’t looked up from your phone yet. Our non-verbal and non-written cues often reveal more than we think they do. Whether it’s how you make eye contact or how you hold yourself during a video interview, don’t forget that you’re constantly communicating even when you’re not saying a word.

One strange way to tap into your body for better communication? Think about your toes. Or adopt a power pose if you need to boost your confidence before a big talk. Or learn how to read other people’s body language so you can respond appropriately.

Get rid of unnecessary conversation fillers

Ums and ahs do little to improve your speech or everyday conversations. Cut them out to be more persuasive and feel or appear more confident. One way is to start keeping track of when you say words like “um” or “like.” You could also try taking your hands out of your pockets or simply relaxing and pausing before you speak. Those silences seem more awkward to you than they do to others, trust us.

Have practice conversations

If you don’t think you’re great at communicating with co-workers or people you don’t know very well, practice on friends and family that you’re comfortable with. Ideally, find people who will give you honest feedback and let you know if you’re getting too quiet, personal or might make someone else feel uncomfortable.

Have a script for small talk and other occasions

Small talk is an art that not many people have mastered. For the inevitable, awkward silences with people you hardly know, it helps to have a plan. The FORD (family, occupation, recreation, dreams) method might help you come up with topics to discuss, and you can also turn small talk into conversation by sharing information that could help you and the other person find common ground. Hey, all that small talk could make you happier in the long run.

Tell a story

Stories are powerful. They activate our brains, make presentations suck less, make us more persuasive and can even help us ace interviews. Learn the secrets of becoming a phenomenal storyteller with these rules from Pixar or by simply using the word “but” more to structure your narrative. Everyone’s got at least one great story in them.

Ask questions and repeat the other person

Let’s face it, we’ve all drifted off when someone else was talking or misheard the other person. Asking questions and repeating the other person’s last few words shows you’re interested in what they say, keeps you on your toes and helps clarify points that could be misunderstood (e.g., “So to recap, you’re going to buy the tickets for Saturday?”).

It also helps for small talk and to fill in awkward silences. Instead of trying to stir up conversation on mundane topics like the weather, ask the other person questions (e.g., “Got any plans for the summer?” or “What are you reading lately?”) and engage in their answers. It’s more important to be interested than to be interesting.

Put away the distractions

It’s pretty rude to use your phone while someone’s talking to you or you’re supposed to be hanging out with them. Maybe we can’t get rid of all our distractions or put away technology completely, but just taking the time to look up could vastly improve our communication with each other.

Tailor your message to your audience

The best communicators adjust how they talk based on whom they’re speaking to; you’d probably use a different style of communication with co-workers or your boss compared to when you’re speaking with your significant otherkids or elders. Always try to keep the other person’s perspective in mind when you try to get your message across.

Be brief, yet specific

There’s actually a BRIEF acronym—Background, Reason, Information, End, Follow-up—to help you keep your emails short without leaving anything out. It’s a good policy for both written and verbal communication (I’ve always felt that my job as a writer was to clearly get the point across and then get off the page as soon as possible. Just two more items on this list!) Clear and concise are two of the 7 Cs of communication, along with concrete, correct, coherent, complete and courteous.

Up your empathy

Communication is a two-way street. If you practice taking the opposing viewpoint, you can reduce the difficulty and anxiety that sometimes arises when trying to truly communicate with others. (For example, knowing what your significant other really means when she says she’s too tired to talk.) Developing empathy helps you better understand even the unspoken parts of your communication with others, and helps you respond more effectively.

Listen, really listen

Finally, going hand-in-hand with most of the points above, the best thing you can do to improve your communication skills is to learn to really listen—to pay attention and let the other person talk without interrupting. It’s hard work, we know, but a good conversation is a bunch of words elegantly connected with listening. Then, even if your communication styles don’t match, at least you’re both working off the same page. And hopefully the other person will be attentively listening to you too.

Elzinga Flash Seminar

Feature | 11/14/2017


"Have you ever felt like a fish out of water at a job? 

You don't fit in, you don't feel the vibe, and you know that these aren't your people. Whatever you do, you don't feel welcome, and you can't do anything right. Your co-workers don't understand you. You don't enjoy most of the work itself, and you struggle to figure out how to do things (or who to ask for help). You feel like you're just biding your time until you can get out, and you spend a lot of time planning your escape." -Natalie Fisher


Feature | 11/27/2018

Megan Miller Presents at 111th Annual National Tax Association Conference in New Orleans

Megan Miller presented her paper “Labor supply responses to in-kind transfers: The case of Medicaid” at the 111th  Annual National Tax Association Conference in New Orleans, Louisiana.  Research presented at the conference covered topics including tax and expenditure policies, public finance, and government budgeting.  Hilary Hoynes and Michael Devereux were the keynote speakers at the conference.  Megan presented her work during the “Social Safety Net Programs and Labor Markets” session.  Her work studies the extent to which people reduce their earnings to qualify for Medicaid coverage, and she then uses that information to estimate the cash-equivalent value of Medicaid to beneficiaries.

Feature | 12/11/2019

PhD Candidates Present at SEAS

In November 2019, Ekaterina Khmelnitskaya and Miguel Mascarua presented their research at the annual conference organized by the Southern Economic Association in Fort Lauderdale, Florida. This large three-day conference included presentations by a diverse set of scholars from universities and government research organizations from all across the United States, including the top universities like Harvard, Princeton, Columbia, etc. Ekaterina presented her paper “Competition and Innovation in the Pharmaceutical Industry” that studies how competition between novel drugs that have not yet entered the market affects the rate of innovation in the industry. She also discussed a paper presented by a researcher at the Federal Trade Commission. Both papers were part of the panel on Industrial Organization and Health. Miguel presented two papers during the sessions. The first one was his job market paper “Weak laws, informality, and organized crime: An establishment-level approach” that quantifies the costs of weak institutions on aggregate output. Also, he presented a work-in-progress titled “A whiter shade of wealth: Skin color discrimination and the distribution of wealth.” Both sessions were productive since he received excellent feedback that will improve the quality of his work.  


Feature | 12/01/2021

Joaquin Saldain Presents at 2021 SEA, LACEA LAMES and NTA Meetings

Joaquin Saldain, a sixth-year student, presented his paper, "A Quantitative Model of High-Cost Consumer Credit," at the 2021 Annual SEA, LACEA LAMES and NTA Meetings. Joaquin provided the following summary of his work: "I study the welfare consequences of regulations on high-cost consumer credit in the US, such as borrowing limits and interest rate caps. I estimate a heterogeneous-agents model with risk-based pricing of loans that features standard exponential discounters and households with self-control and temptation. I use transaction-level payday lending data and the literature's valuations of a no-borrowing incentive to identify different household types. I find that one-third of high-cost borrowers suffer from temptation. Although individually targeted regulation could improve the welfare of these households, I find that noncontingent regulatory borrowing limits and interest-rate caps—like those contained in typical regulations of payday loans—reduce the welfare of all types of households. The reason is that lenders offer borrowers tight individually-targeted loan price schedules that limit households' borrowing capacity so that noncontingent regulatory limits cannot improve welfare over them. "

Elzinga Flash Seminar

Feature | 01/17/2020

Week of Jan 13 Newsletter

Things just haven't been the same without you! As you get back into the rhythm of the semester, keep an eye out for upcoming ECO events and networking opportunities on Handshake. On the 24th, the ECO will be holding an Internship Panel with Econ upper-level students who have successfully gone through the recruiting process. Drop by for snacks and straightforward advice from your peers. The ECO offers individual advising to majors. You can sign up through Handshake for appointments if you've taken the brief pre-req workshop. The next pre-req worksho will be held this Friday, January 17 at noon in Monroe 120. Sign up at the links.

ECO Internship Panel

Join us and a panel of economics majors at the ECO's Spring Internship Panel as they discuss their recruitment experience, the internship search process, on-the-job experiences, and their next steps. The program will include 30 minutes for the panel, 15-30 minutes of formal Q&A and then 30 minutes of networking with the panelists. We will provide snacks for attendees at the networking portion of the program.
Sign Up Here

Upcoming Events

ECO Orientation for All Economics Majors; Job and Internship Workshop- Pre-Req for Advising (Sponsored by the ECO)
Fri, Jan 17 12:00 pm EST - 12:50 pm EST
Monroe Hall, Room 120
Sign Up Here

ECO Internship Panel (Sponsored by the ECO)
Fri, Jan 24 12:00 pm EST - 1:30 pm EST
Monroe Hall, Room 130
Sign Up Here

UVA Spring 2020 JCPenney Suit Up!
Sun, Jan 26 6:00 pm EST - 9:00 pm EST
1639 Rio Rd E, Charlottesville, Virginia 22901
Sign Up Here

2020 Spring Job and Internship Fair (Engineering and University-wide Career Fair )
Wed, Jan 29 10:00 am EST - 3:00 pm EST
Thu, Jan 30 10:00 am EST - 3:00 pm EST
Newcomb Hall (Student Center)
Sign Up Here

2020 DC IMPACTLink Interviews - PSG Day in DC
Fri, Feb 7 9:00 am EST - 5:00 pm EST
1779 Massachusetts Avenue Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia 20036, United States
Sign Up Here
Deadline for resumes is January 20th

Employers Recruiting at ImpactLink in DC

  1. American Enterprise Institute
  2. Center on Budget and Policy Priorities
  3. Cleary Gottlieb
  4. FEMA
  5. Hanover Research
  6. KaBOOM!
  7. Keybridge Communications
  8. National Endowment for Democracy
  9. Tesla Government
  10. US Department of Justice/Antitrust Division
  11. Y Analytics, PBC

Jobs & Internships for Econ Majors

Jobs on Handshake

1/28: Financial Planning and Analysis Associate, Ciena (Hanover, MD)
1/30: Account Executive, E. W. Scripps (Baltimore, MD)
1/31: Business Development Representative, Quorum (Washington DC)
1/31: Marketing Associate, CRC Companies (Arlington, VA)
2/1: Private Equity Operations Intern, Broadtree Partners (NYC)
2/8: Venture Capital Analyst, Blisce (NYC)

Jobs Selected from External Boards

1/17: Royster Lawton Fellowship for Entrepreneurship and Social Impact
1/20: Strategy and Innovation Summer Associate, The Capital Group Companies Inc (L.A., CA)
1/31: 2020 Summer Leadership Academy, Accounting and Consulting Group LLC (Atlanta, GA)
3/1: Market Data Analyst, Bloomberg (Princeton, NJ)
3/1: Finance Leadership Development Program, Johnson & Johnson (New Brunswick, NJ)
Summer Internships and Jobs found at WayUp

Feature | 05/12/2020

Class of 2020: Homegrown Squash Player Shines in Growing Program

Elzinga Flash Seminar

Feature | 02/20/2019

2019 Economics Undergraduate Career Forum Schedule

What can you do with an economics major? Almost anything! Join the economics department for a series of career talks and office hours, as well as two career panels moderated by our faculty. You’ll hear from guests with diverse backgrounds and have a chance to ask questions and network with our guests. What do they have in common – an economics major! This program will be of interest to all students who are considering work in the fields of our guests.


Feature | 04/22/2020

Yooseon Hwang Awarded 2020 Arts, Humanities and Social Sciences (AHSS) Summer Research Fellowship

Yooseon Hwang has been awarded a 2020 Arts, Humanities and Social Sciences (AHSS) Summer Research Fellowship for her research on how traffic congestion and environmental amenities affect home prices. Congratulations!

Feature | 10/04/2022


Machine Learning

Feature | 01/18/2019

December Workshop on Introduction to Machine Learning Taught by Visiting Faculty from BITS India


Feature | 02/09/2018

Econ Alum Alex Turowski Plays with Data for a Living! And He Wants You to Too!

2010 economics alumnus Alex Turowski is the new Partner Success Lead at New Engen in Seattle, Washington. What does this mean? Alex plays with data for a living at New Engen, a digital marketing optimization and design firm.

After building a successful career in Search Engine Optimization with Merkle (formerly RKG) here in Charlottesville, Alex was lured to New Engen in Seattle to lead their Partner Success team. 

The firm boasts solid, fast growth and has become an industry leader with clients such as TUMI, Volt Athletics, and Man Crates and partners such as Shopify.

Alex is hiring an entry level analyst and the posting is on Handshake. If you'd like to reach Alex directly, please write to him at https://www.linkedin.com/in/alex-turowski-3b500647/

New Engen is a performance-driven marketing technology company accelerating customer growth through digital marketing optimization. By integrating proprietary software with teams of experienced marketers and data scientists, New Engen helps clients solve some of their most complex digital marketing challenges. The company’s powerful technology solution ignites growth at companies across industries, geographies and maturity. New Engen is headquartered in Seattle with offices in Dallas, New York, San Francisco and Washington, DC.


Devaki Ghose

Feature | 05/04/2017

16th CEPR Postgraduate conference at Nottingham

Devaki Ghose presents her paper "Identifying the Role of Vertical Linkage in Agglomeration: Empirical Evidence from India" on Thursday, May 4th, 2017 in University of Nottingham, UK.


Feature | 11/01/2018

Diego Legal-Cañisá at the Becker-Friedman Institute's Macro Financial Modeling Summer Session

The Macro Financial Modeling (MFM) Summer Session, organized by the University of Chicago's Becker-Friedman Institute, is designed for early-career professionals and doctoral students in economics and related fields who are interested in developing enhanced macroeconomic models with linkages to the financial sector. Diego Legal-Cañisá, who participated in the 2018 Session,  reports that it was "an excellent opportunity to receive feedback on my research from a wide range of top scholars with similar research interests. I did a poster presentation which allowed me to practice explaining my research and preliminary results and answering questions clearly and concisely. I received insightful comments and recommendations, such as suggestions of additional exercises I could perform and connections I could make to other related areas. In addition, the MFM was a great opportunity to learn more about frontier research in macro-finance from top scholars and to listen to inspiring keynote talks by Lars Hansen, Christopher Sims, Andrew W. Lo, and Harald Uhlig, to name a few. Last but not least, it was a great opportunity to exchange experiences about academic life with colleagues and gather resources pertaining to conferences and internship opportunities, job market tips, and other useful resources that will help me develop as a researcher."

Feature | 01/14/2021

Daniel Harper Coauthors Paper Published in JEBO

Daniel Harper, a 4th year doctoral student, coauthored "Capital constraints and asset bubbles: An experimental study," with Professors Lee Coppock and Charles Holt.  The paper was published in the Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization, January 2021.

Feature | 08/20/2019

Perfect Pitch: How to Nail Your Elevator Speech

by: Laura Katen for The Muse
You ride the subway, grab a coffee, and get to the office. It’s your typical Monday morning—until, bam! You step in the elevator and find yourself face-to-face with the CEO of your dream company or the client you’ve been dying to land.

She smiles and says, “Hi. What do you do?”

Scary? Absolutely. But it could happen to you—tomorrow—and you’ll want to be prepared.

The aptly named “elevator speech” or “elevator pitch” is a concise, compelling introduction that can be communicated in the amount of time it takes someone to ride the elevator to her floor. Even if you’re never caught heading up to the 39th with someone important, this is a good skill to master when you’re introducing yourself during an interview, a sales pitch, or a networking event. People are busy, and being able to communicate who you are and what you do quickly and effectively will ensure that you get your most important points across, no matter how short the conversation. Not quite ready for the elevator ride of your life? Check out our step-by-step guide to crafting—and perfecting—your pitch.

1. Start With a Blank Canvas

Take a blank piece of paper and number it from one to 10. Then, fill in the most important bits of information that you want to convey about yourself, your service or product, or your company. What, exactly, do you do? What have you achieved, and what are your goals? Who does your company serve and why? Focus on the most interesting or memorable facts—the ones that really make you stand out from others.

2. Red Pen It

Using a different color pen, edit what you’ve drafted with a critical eye. Eliminate any redundancies, unnecessary or unclear information, and broad business jargon. More importantly, hone and enhance the good stuff. “I’m great at sales” isn’t likely to pique anyone’s interest, but “I’ve exceeded my sales goals every quarter for the last two years” sure might.

3. Pick a Card

Grab five index cards, and label them “Who I Am,” “What I Do,” “How I Do It,” “Why I Do It,” and “Who I Do It For.” Add each item on the list you’ve created to the card where it fits best. Ideally, you’ll have two compelling sentences underneath each heading, so fill in any gaps if you need to.

4. Get in Order

Organize the cards in a logical order, making sure the most important information is first. Remember, you often only have a few seconds to communicate with someone. If you get cut off, what would you want her to walk away remembering?

5. Add an Attention-Getter

Add an interesting fact or stat to use at the beginning of your speech. Your goal is to immediately engage someone so that he or she is intrigued and wants to learn more.

6. Practice!

Recite your pitch to someone close who can be objective, and ask for constructive feedback (although we love our friends and families, sometimes they think we can do no wrong!). What may seem clear in your mind might come across as convoluted, long-winded, or fragmented to an outside observer.

7. Record Your Pitch

Once you’ve gotten feedback and honed your pitch even further, record yourself saying it. Listen to your tone—make sure it’s friendly, non-threatening, and that you’re not talking a mile a minute (knowing you only have a few moments to speak may subconsciously increase your pace). Really listen to what you’re saying—make sure you’re not repeating words and that you’re sending the message you really want to convey.

8. Ride the Elevator

The next time you ride an elevator (alone), practice your speech. First, give yourself some time by going to the highest floor. Then, try giving your pitch from a middle floor and from the first to the third floor, too. Having to make just a few brief moments count will help you to hone the words you need and scrap the ones you don’t! This week, set aside some time to craft your elevator pitch (or dust off the one you’ve used before). You just never know who you might face tomorrow morning.

Source: https://www.themuse.com/advice/perfect-pitch-how-to-nail-your-elevator-speech

Elzinga Flash Seminar

Feature | 12/13/2022

Class of 2021 First Destinations Report

Click on the link below to access the Class of 2021 First Destination Report.

Class of 2021 First Destination Report

Elzinga Flash Seminar

Feature | 10/18/2016


Job Postings from Alumni, Events, and this week an Alumna Profile, just for economics majors.

Elzinga Flash Seminar

Feature | 05/01/2023

End of Semester Message from the ECO Director

Dear Economics Majors,

As we close out the semester and you enter into the exam period, the ECO sends you our best wishes. Here is an article to help you navigate this time, which may be stressful for many of you. For those who are graduating, hearty congratulations on reaching this milestone. We are excited to follow you through your next steps.

We will be here during exams and most of the summer to meet with students, evaluate our career services from this past year, and plan career programming for the next academic year. Appointment times are listed on Handshake through the end of July. All majors, including the Class of 2023, may make appointments this summer. We will send one newsletter each in June and July, and then two in August, resuming our weekly cadence in September.

We are attempting to surpass last year’s response rate to two surveys – First Destination for our graduating students and Summer Plans Survey for all other majors. Please do help us! Respondents are entered into a drawing for econ merchandise.

Join our LinkedIn group or connect with me directly for access to job postings from our alumni that come in this summer.

Best wishes on your exams!

Jen Jones

Elzinga Flash Seminar

Feature | 11/08/2018

Does Your Resume Have a Perfect Sales Pitch?

Does Your Resume Have a Perfect Sales Pitch?

No matter your field, there's plenty of selling in the job search, with prospective employers as buyers for the products, which are the applicants themselves. As a result, sales skills matter, and they get a lot of attention. But they're mostly thought of as the skills you need to bring to the interview, a place where your performance is akin to a sales pitch. That perspective is far too limited, however, because knowing how to sell is critical to many other parts of the search. Nowhere is that more true than in the way you handle your resume.

That seemingly cut-and-dried piece of paper can actually be a powerful sales tool if you give it half a chance. To do that, though, you have to understand something that the best salespeople, the true pros, know, and you have to be willing to apply that knowledge to your resume. With that, your resume can really do its job. In Martin Scorsese's 2013 film "The Wolf of Wall Street," Leonardo DiCaprio, as stock-promoter Jordan Belfort, issues a similar challenge to his would-be associates in boiler-room shenanigans: "Sell me this pen!"

Editor's note: You can find the clip here. We'd embed it, but it, like much of the rest of the movie, is NSFW. 

The point of the exercise is to show them, despite the high opinions they hold of their own sales skills, that they don't really know how to sell. They make all the rookie mistakes. They talk about how wonderful the pen is. They extol its beauty. They focus on its features. 

We don't need to detail all the ways they get it wrong. We don't even need to elaborate on what it means to get it right, because getting it right comes down to one very simple principle: Start with the customer, not the pen. 

In other words, a good salesman needs to know who's buying what he wants to sell. Features are nice, but they may be completely irrelevant to a given customer. Benefits, as the word itself suggests, are things worth getting, but we don't all seek the same benefits. Before selling benefits, you need to know your prospect and the benefits that actually matter. 

That's the method – call it the "buyer-first approach" – and it's often pressed into service as a good way to manage the job interview for sales and non-sales jobs alike. In that context, it works, and it does so because it's invariably helpful to know your interviewer. 

Without that knowledge, you're liable to rattle off accomplishments and experiences that don't really matter. With it, you can target the things that do, the ones the interviewer sees as important. What is she looking for from an applicant? What is this job about? What qualities suit that job, and, it follows, what qualities should you emphasize? Which of your accomplishments translate well to this new position? Which won't matter at all? What does she want to see, and how can you make her see it in you? 

The buyer-first approach is really just a matter of learning to see things through the other party's eyes, and the interview is the most obvious use case for its implementation. After all, it's the one place you might be called on to sell an actual pen to that actual person on the other side of the desk. It happens in real life, not just in the movies. 

However, if the interview is the obvious place for the buyer-first approach, it's not the only place. In fact, the approach can be profitably applied throughout the job search. 

Take resumes, for example. You may have put a lot of effort into crafting a resume that looks great. It conveys loads of positive information in a beautifully organized and highly readable form, and that's quite an accomplishment. It's as close to perfect as can be, and it should make a wonderful impression on anyone who receives it. The world trembles in anticipation. 

Before you unleash this creature on that trembling world, take a step back. There's every chance that the document you've created, beautiful though it may be, is a document that, first and foremost, looks good to you. That's to be expected, but now it's time to apply the buyer-first approach. It's time to look at it through the eyes of the people who'll be on the receiving end.

First of all, those people are not all the same. Even in the same industry, or in the same field within that industry, different companies and different jobs call for different qualities. Sometimes, those qualities are spelled out in a job posting, and the applicant needs to simply hit the marks explicitly laid out. At other times, you have to dig deeper to find what's on a hiring manager's mind. You have to interpret what the "buyer" wants, using any clues you can find. Again, you need to see things through his eyes.

To complicate matters, it may be that no human eyes are involved at all. Then, it's not a hiring manager you need to impress. Instead, it's an algorithm, an automated system that scans your resume for the right keywords. Without those keywords, no hiring manager will ever know how good you could have been. You can still use the buyer-first approach here by looking through the system's eyes and giving it the keywords it wants to find. 

There's a catch, of course, to adopting the buyer-first approach, but it's a catch worth tolerating if you want your resume to have maximum impact. 

Simply put, the catch is that there's more work to do. You have to tailor your resume to the needs of a particular employer. You have to highlight the achievements that really seem to matter to this company. You have to spell out the skills that matter in this specific job. You may have to emphasize experience or education in slightly different ways. In essence, you sell the pen differently to different buyers, and that means revising the resume you worked so hard to perfect. 

In the end, though, it's worth it. When you're in the job market, you're the pen, and putting extra effort into your sales pitch will seem like a small price to have paid if it helped you make this one very big sale.

Paul Freiberger is President of Shimmering Resumes and author of When Can You Start? Ace the Job Interview and Get Hired. For career help and resume writing and LinkedIn profiles, contact him at Paul@ShimmeringResumes.com.

Elzinga Flash Seminar

Feature | 08/12/2016

Working Overseas

This article offers terrific advice about searching for jobs and internships overseas.

When reading the “Consider the Possibilities” section, keep in mind that many countries abroad have U.Va. alumni chapters, which you may access here.  The ECO is certain that alumni who manage these clubs would be amenable to speaking with you about your questions and ideas.

Elzinga Flash Seminar

Feature | 08/02/2021

7 Essential Career Readiness Tips for Students

Taken from Vault

Deciding what to do after school and how to prepare for life after college can be stressful and time-consuming. But it doesn’t have to be. If you follow the below seven stress-free tips, you’ll be well prepared for the next step in your life.

1. Actively build your network

If you want to advance professionally, you need to begin networking as soon as possible—and that means starting in college. You should always try to meet as many people as possible. And don’t be too hesitant to go to social gatherings. You can use social events hosted by your college as fantastic opportunities to engage with key individuals. When you do go to gatherings, don’t wait for others to approach you. Be prepared to take the lead and be the conversation starter.

2. Learn how to budget

Money management might be your last priority when you're in school. However, college is an excellent time to establish sustainable lifestyle decisions such as budgeting. While we all understand the importance of living within our means, it’s easy to forget to sit down and devote some time to developing and managing a budget.

Usually, creating a budget isn’t an issue for college students. But adhering to it is. Budgeting is based on the premise that you should never spend more money than you earn. Otherwise, you risk becoming engulfed in debt that will be hard to recover from. To begin to create a budget, determine how much money you have and which school expenses are unavoidable. These are figures that should remain relatively constant for the school year.

3. Refine and build your social media presence

It's critical to ensure that your social media profiles portray you favorably. Prospective employers will likely conduct an online search of you, and if they find something on your social media that they dislike or find offensive, it may cost you a job opportunity.

It’s also a good idea to start to use your social media to build your network. You can now use various social networking sites to interact with prominent people online. So, participate in online exchanges on social media platforms such as Facebook, Twitter, LinkedIn, and Instagram, to name a few. Contact employers, industry experts, recruiting agencies, passionate individuals, and so forth. Create connections that could help you later.

4. Work on your interviewing skills

One of the main things you'll need to do to prepare for life after college is master your interviewing skills. The best way to prepare is to practice your answers well in advance of interviews, so you can be ready to interview on a moment’s notice. It will be far less stressful later if you start preparing as early as possible while in college. Note that it’s an art to learn how to talk to employers and recruiters, and it takes time to master. You shouldn’t only begin to prepare for an interview the night before. Start now!

5. Find internships and mentorships

Any student who has searched for an internship will tell you that finding the perfect one can be challenging. They’ll also tell you it’s well worth the effort. There’s no disputing that an internship can give you many advantages, including essential experience that will help you develop a solid professional foundation as you begin your career path. This can lead to greater job prospects once you graduate, as well as a higher salary.

Also, a mentor can assist you in understanding professional environments by giving you viewpoints that can help you grow your career in its early stages. A mentor might be a professor with industry ties, a previous supervisor, or even a family member. Your choice of mentor will likely be influenced by your area of interest and intended career.

6. Think about student loan repayment

Consider your repayment strategy if you used student loans to help fund your education. There are likely several repayment choices available for federal student loans, including standard, graduated, and income-based repayment. Most likely, you'll have various terms to consider if you took out private student loans.

Also, if you plan to begin your post-grad career in a big city like Los Angeles or New York, you’ll need to be smart with your money and check what the best neighborhoods for renters are. For example, if you target affordable places for renters in NYC, you’ll be able to significantly cut your costs and use the extra money towards repaying your debt.

7. Follow your passions and know your worth

Career paths are full of twists and turns, as well as unexpected stops and starts. Consider your career as a three- or four-decade timeline. It isn't just one job. So, make sure to plant, nurture, and pursue your passions, since they’ll provide you with the most fulfillment and opportunities for success. College will help you find your strengths and realize your worth—claim them. Remember, there’s no one else like you—and that's your biggest strength.

Melissa Fisher is a full-time blogger with a focus on career counseling and job hunting. Her passions include reading true crime novels and playing with her two dogs.

Elzinga Flash Seminar

Feature | 10/09/2017


"Brian Tracy describes sales as the "ultimate default career." By that, he means that many people get into sales because they can't find any other job that pays them what they need. Some of the top sales professionals in the world will admit that they had no intention of getting into or staying in the sales industries, yet most wouldn't change their decision to stay. But while sales may be a default occupation, there are several reasons why you should choose a career in sales instead of being a salesperson until something else opens up." - Thomas Phelps 

Click here to read the rest of the article. 


Feature | 10/10/2016

ECON Alum: Diane Cherry, Class of '89

At the time of the production of this profile, Ms. Cherry worked as the Environments Policy Manager at the Institute of Emerging Issues. Learn more about Ms. Cherry's current position here: http://www.energync.org/page/bio_diane_C/Diane-Cherry.htm

Why study economics?

Economics is one of the most important topics that explain everyday life.  It tells us why consumers and firms behave the way they do and how they relate to each other and to institutions such as the government. As two examples -- economics explains how firms react to different types of regulation and how the Federal Reserve’s monetary policies impact the interest rates consumers face when they go to finance the purchase of their house. Economics can be applied to all kinds of sectors such as healthcare, the environment and education. In nearly every issue or discussion people want to know who is impacted and how much something costs.  All of that requires an understanding of economics. More broadly, economics teaches analytical and problem solving skills that employers continually search for in their employees.

2. What course/professor was influential and why?

Dr. Ed Olsen was the most influential professor I had when I was at UVA.  I was part of the economics distinguished majors program and spent my fourth year doing a research paper on how announcements of money supply affect interest rates and exchange rates.  I really enjoyed the research aspect of the work and wanted to continue as a research assistant in some capacity after I graduated.  Dr. Olsen provided me the names and contacts of several organizations in Washington, D.C. that hire research assistants out of college and I was fortunate enough to work for one organization for two and a half years before I went to graduate school.

3. What made the economics department attractive to you/what made it special?  

The economics department was special for a number of reasons.  First, I really enjoyed the distinguished majors program and the small number of students that were part of that group.  We socialized together and studied together and many of us had similar career interests.  Second, I really had a chance to get to know my professors – Dr. Charlie Holt and Dr. Ed Olsen were two of them-- and I have even stayed in touch with them fifteen years later. Third, the department offered a variety of classes in everything from labor economics to public finance and all of these topics explored economics in a different way. There really was something available for anyone and now the department offers even more classes than when I attended UVA.

4. Your job title is Environments Policy Manager. In your own words, what is it that you do and how is your job related to your major?

I am the Environments Policy Manager at the Institute for Emerging Issues, a public policy organization housed at NC State University and founded by former Governor Jim Hunt.  In my job, I work collaboratively with individuals from all sectors and areas of North Carolina to build collective action in energy, infrastructure, transportation and the natural environment. I also teach U.S. Environmental Policy, Written Communication for Public Policy and other courses in the MPA program at NC State University.  Previously, I worked as a senior policy advisor for North Carolina’s environmental director and as a Presidential Management Fellow for the EPA.

The environmental and energy field is very divisive.  Economics plays an important part of the discussion of what the state of North Carolina should do to encourage everything from the development of renewable energy to the deployment of broadband in rural areas of the state.  The other factor that permeates most of the discussions I am part of is the role of the private and the public sector in solving energy and environmental issues. Depending on one’s viewpoint, there should either be a strong role for the government or the outcome should be left to market.  The conversations are interesting and economics inevitably has a big piece of the discussion.

5. What is an interesting project you’ve worked on?

One of the most interesting projects I worked on recently was developing a workshop for about one hundred stakeholders across North Carolina on the implications of the EPA’s Clean Power Plan (CPP) on North Carolina’s future energy footprint.  The CPP’s carbon dioxide standards reflect “the best system of emission reductions” and each state is obliged to develop an individual program for compliance.  This set of regulations serves as a national signal for the end of coal as the backbone of our nation’s energy needs. Meanwhile, the Plan also opens up enormous market opportunities for manufacturers of energy-efficient products and components of renewable energy systems. North Carolina’s manufacturers excel in both of these product sectors.

6. What advice do you have for students about their time in the department in relation to preparing for next steps?

When I was in my third and fourth year I knew I wanted to work for a while before going to graduate school but I didn’t know where or in what field.  I found the professors an amazing resource to talk with about the opportunities available to economics majors.  Dr. Olsen in particular was really helpful and provided me the names of over a dozen organizations that hired research assistants for two or three years.  I interviewed with several before deciding upon Resources for the Future and that job has influenced my entire career trajectory. 

7. What do you know now you wish you had known while you were majoring in economics at U.Va.?  

I wished I had talked with more students who took different career paths following graduation. Economics is a major that leads to a number of careers. I never really considered consulting or law school but that was in part because I never had exposure to students who worked in those fields.  I believe that the best way to find your path going forward is to get exposure to as many people who have different careers.  Each time you learn something you don’t want to do it is a clearer path to finding what you do want to do.

8. Who (or what) has been influential in your career and why?

My graduate degree in public policy from the Kennedy School of Government at Harvard University was very instrumental toward my career path.  I had an interest in policy issues back in the early 1990s when I left UVA and worked in Washington, D.C. but graduate programs in public policy then were not nearly as prevalent as they are now.  I kind of backed into a public policy career after eliminating a Ph.D. in economics as one of my career options.  My boss at Resources for the Future where I worked as a research assistant had contacts at the Kennedy School of Government and suggested that I apply there for graduate school.

9. What is on the horizon for you/other career goals you have in mind?  

I have really enjoyed teaching public policy courses at NC State University and hope to continue teaching in the indefinite future.  Since I’ve been working about twenty years in public policy it is fun to teach public policy tools to the next generation of professionals.

10. Tell us a fun fact about you.

I really enjoy running and have already completed five half marathons throughout North Carolina.  I don’t think I’ll ever train for a full marathon but running is a great way to relieve stress and ruminate about things that require a lot of thinking.


Graph for Mental Health

Feature | 01/13/2017

Three UVA ECON Grads Publish Paper with Prof. Steve Stern (Stony Brook)

Variation in mental illness and provision of public mental health services

Authors: UVA Grads: William C. Johnson, Michael LaForest, Brett Lissenden & Prof. Steven Stern (Stony Brook).

Published recently in Health Services and Outcomes Research Methodology, this paper is an expansion of a previous study by Professor Steven Stern which estimated the local prevalence of mental illness in the Charlottesville area. That earlier paper caught the eye of state senator Creigh Deeds, who recognized how useful it would be to have the analysis extended to the entire state of Virginia. Three Economics graduate students then helped Professor Stern estimate the prevalence of mental illness within 30 geographical regions in the state of Virginia. After accounting for insurance status, they were able to compare estimates of demand for public mental health services to supply of public mental health services in each of those 30 geographical regions. Over 66,000 uninsured and Medicaid-insured individuals in Virginia were found to be without public mental health services. The deficit varies locally, with several regions having no deficit and others having 5,000 or more untreated people. Though a large portion of the unserved people with mental illness are uninsured, many would be insured for mental health services through Medicaid if Virginia were to accept the Medicaid expansion associated with the Affordable Care Act. The paper's findings suggest that states can better serve populations relying on mental health care by allocating scarce public mental health dollars to localities reflecting their need. The co-authors' results have been presented to a Virginia Senate joint subcommittee on mental health. The chart below shows the deficit of mental health services across Virginia's Community Services Boards for three values of PSUs (primary sampling units).





Elzinga Flash Seminar

Feature | 01/25/2022

ECO Video Article: How to Maximize Handshake's Internship and Job Fairs

If you’re looking for the chance to connect with recruiters and stand out in your job or internship hunt, Handshake’s new virtual career fairs are meant for you!

UVA's next virtual career fair is Thursday, 2/3! Watch the video below to learn all about why virtual fairs are your ticket to getting hired this year, including:

  • No more long lines
  • Early session sign-ups
  • Chances to stand out to recruiters

Then, get prepared for your first fair with our holistic guide. Don’t forget to prep an elevator pitch!

Then visit this link for more tips: https://economics.virginia.edu/news/eco-blog-approaching-virtual-career-...

Elzinga Flash Seminar

Feature | 12/07/2018

Alumni Spotlight: David Neuman

Alumni Spotlight: DAVID NEUMAN, Principal at Trammel Crow Company

Why econ? Economics is a great way to learn the driving forces behind business and the economy. It teaches you the fundamental building blocks for markets and the financial system and a logical way to analyze problems and situations. I graduated from UVA with my economics degree in 1999.

 I now work as the Principal at the Trammell Crow Company. My job is to create value developing commercial real estate projects in the MidAtlantic region for my company’s stakeholders- those are the employees, tenants, residents, municipalities and communities in which we develop projects. I spend much of my time analyzing the relationship of risk and reward for specific development projects and, therefore, spend significant time quantifying and qualifying inherent risks of a project. 

Which economics course was influential and why?
They were all influential! Perhaps the most interesting and memorable, which may be surprising to some, was American Economic History because it gave real examples of the causes of economics forces at motion and what happened in America when those forces dominated the economy (e.g., the Depression, inflation). Economic cycles are inevitable and learning from the past is the best way to prepare for future cycles.

Some advice for current students?  

  • Don’t stress about formulas, small facts or trying to memorize things- focus on understanding the concepts. If you focus on the concepts and remember those concepts, that is how you change your way of thinking and become a smarter person. 
  • When nearing graduation, it’s easy for students to fall into a trap of what they feel they “should do”, such as traditional fields like consulting or banking, however, if that student doesn’t enjoy that field, then how can one have a long, fruitful career doing it? Further, perhaps a student’s core strengths don’t favor that field. Therefore, finding a career path that’s enjoyable and values that student’s strengths is essential.
  • I got C’s in both ECON 201 & 202! So, keep at it and keep positive!  
Elzinga Flash Seminar

Feature | 11/27/2018

How A.I. May Affect Your Internship and Job Search

This article covers how AI may affect your internship and job search, and how you may be able to influence this by managing your electronic footprint and social media presence.

Secondly, the companies listed are potential employers for our students. Tip: Consider organizations that you read about, especially those that are doing work that interests you, as employment possibilities.

Wanted: The ‘perfect babysitter.’ Must pass AI scan for respect and attitude.

By Drew Harwell

When Jessie Battaglia started looking for a new babysitter for her 1-year-old son, she wanted more information than she could get from a criminal-background check, parent comments and a face-to-face interview.

So she turned to Predictim, an online service that uses “advanced artificial intelligence” to assess a babysitter’s personality, and aimed its scanners at one candidate’s thousands of Facebook, Twitter and Instagram posts.

The system offered an automated “risk rating” of the 24-year-old woman, saying she was at a “very low risk” of being a drug abuser. But it gave a slightly higher risk assessment — a 2 out of 5 — for bullying, harassment, being “disrespectful” and having a “bad attitude.”

The system didn’t explain why it had made that decision. But Battaglia, who had believed the sitter was trustworthy, suddenly felt pangs of doubt.

“Social media shows a person’s character,” said Battaglia, 29, who lives outside Los Angeles. “So why did she come in at a 2 and not a 1?”

Predictim is offering parents the same playbook that dozens of other tech firms are selling to employers around the world: artificial-intelligence systems that analyze a person’s speech, facial expressions and online history with promises of revealing the hidden aspects of their private lives.

The technology is reshaping how some companies approach recruiting, hiring and reviewing workers, offering employers an unrivaled look at job candidates through a new wave of invasive psychological assessment and surveillance.

The tech firm Fama says it uses AI to police workers' social media for “toxic behavior” and alert their bosses. And the recruitment-technology firm HireVue, which works with companies such as Geico, Hilton and Unilever, offers a system that automatically analyzes applicants' tone, word choice and facial movements during video interviews to predict their skill and demeanor on the job. (Candidates are encouraged to smile for best results.)

Read more

Elzinga Flash Seminar

Feature | 11/28/2022

What’s the Ideal Length for a Cover Letter? —Plus Tips to Get Yours There

What’s the Ideal Length for a Cover Letter? —Plus Tips to Get Yours There

by Regina Borsellino from The Muse

When you have a task to complete, it helps to know what the end product should look like. It's especially true when you’re doing something you might find difficult—like writing a cover letter. How long should it be? What information do you need to include?

Hiring managers and recruiters are busy people, so you don’t want to disqualify yourself by writing a cover letter that’s too long. But you do want to make sure your cover letter is effective. “The cover letter should serve as an introduction to your resume, highlighting why you’re interested in the position, what you’re looking for in your next role, and how you can potentially add value to the position or company,” says Muse career coach Yolanda Owens, who has over 20 years of recruiting experience. 

So how much space do you have to do all that? And how can you make the best use of that space?

How long should a cover letter be?

The ideal cover letter length is:

  • Less than one page
  • Three to five paragraphs
  • Less than 400 words

At least that’s the approximate consensus we came to based on research and input from a few experts who have worked as hiring managers, recruiters, or both.

If this feels short, “Keep in mind that the cover letter is not a tell-all of everything you've done,” says Muse coach Emily Liou, a recruiter and HR professional. “You just want enough to position yourself as a fit and to pique the curiosity of the reader.” You don’t need pages and pages to do that.

In a survey of 205 HR professionals, ResumeLab found that 42% of respondents preferred cover letters between half and one page and 40% preferred cover letters that were less than half a page. Only 18% said they preferred cover letters longer than one page. Muse coach Steven Davis, a technical recruiter, advocates for a cover letter that “can be comfortably read in less than a minute.”

How do you write a cover letter that's just the right length?

Here are a few tips that'll get your cover letter to the ideal length:

1. Pay attention to your structure.

You may remember the five-paragraph essay from school: introduction paragraph, body paragraphs, and conclusion paragraph. Cover letters are structured similarly.

Basically, you should lay out your cover letter like this:

  • Introduction (one paragraph): Your cover letter opening should be original and creative to draw your reader in. It should show your connections to the employer and your interest and excitement for the position, Liou says. You might also use this paragraph to explain that you’re making a career pivot or re-entering the workforce after an employment gap.
  • Body (one to three paragraphs): Your body paragraphs should focus on the ways you can help the organization or team, Owens says. Talk about what skills and experience you bring to the company, and back up what you’re saying with past examples—but keep them concise.
  • Conclusion (one paragraph): Your conclusion should be “a final paragraph thanking the reader for their time and reiterating your interest,” Owens says.

2. Figure out what matters to the employer.

“This is a great time to dissect what is most important to this position,” Liou says, so you can focus your cover letter on what your prospective employer cares about most. Go back to the job description and read it thoroughly. What’s listed first and what’s repeated? From there, Davis says, you should be able to identify the top skills and experiences they’re looking for.

Then, think about what in your background most exemplifies these qualifications—with an emphasis on situations where you’ve made an impact for your past employers, Liou says. These are the experiences you should recount in your cover letter.

3. Use concise examples to pique your readers’ interest.

Davis suggests using the “the STAR format without any details to create curiosity and motivate the interviewer to review the resume.” If you’re unfamiliar, the STAR method is a way of telling stories in an interview where you make sure that you hit on the situation, task, action, and result of the experience you’re recounting. Using a compact version of the STAR method in your cover letter will help show the impact you’ve had in past roles and how without adding too much length. So you might write something like:

“When my last company redesigned their website, I took the lead on layout, and by working as a constant liaison between our product team and our users, I helped produce a website that our users found 50% more intuitive and drew 33% more repeat users.”

4. Go beyond your resume—without regurgitating it.

“The cover letter should be a supplemental piece to your resume, not a summary,” Owens says. So don’t waste space regurgitating other parts of your application. “Use the cover letter to tell the employer what you want them to know about you that’s not on your resume,” or anywhere else, Owens says.

Focus your precious page or less on highlighting your relevant achievements and explicitly connecting your resume to the position. Don’t worry about including all of the context and details about your past jobs. For anything you talk about in a cover letter, your resume can “continue your narrative—filling in the remaining details of the where, when, and what of your work experiences and history,” Owens says.

5. Consider using bullet points.

And we don’t mean repeating your resume bullet points. We mean using a few bullet points to concisely relay a few key pieces of information that aren’t on your resume, but contribute to your qualifications as a candidate, without taking up too much space.

For example, Owens says you might create a “What I bring to the table” section with three to four bullet points (one or two sentences each). In a section like this, you can touch on a few more disparate topics such as your management or leadership style, pain points you can help your next employer with, or work environments you have experience thriving in, Owens says.

6. Use standard formatting.

Did you ever make your font size a bit larger or choose a slightly wider font to hit a page count on an essay for school? What about widening those margins? Did you ever do the opposite to slip in under a page maximum without having to do another editing pass at 3 a.m.? (Guilty!)

These tactics won’t fly for your cover letter (or your resume for that matter). Instead, stick to standard, easy-to-read formatting. Generally this means:

  • Common fonts like Arial, Helvetica, or Times New Roman
  • Font sizes between 10 and 12 point
  • Margin sizes of about one inch on the top, bottom, and sides
  • Lines that are single spaced (1.15 max) with an additional space between paragraphs if you'd like.

Don’t make your cover letter harder to read by cramming as much onto a page as possible. Also keep in mind that your cover letter often passes through the same applicant tracking system (ATS) that your resume does—so any flashy formatting could trip up the software that parses your application materials.

7. Trim the excess.

If your cover letter is still too long, take another look and trim out anything extra that doesn’t need to be there. Some things to cut include:

  • Content about how much you’d enjoy doing the work, Davis says—beyond what you need to express enthusiasm.
  • Mentions of years of experience: While the job description may call for three years of experience with a CRM (customer relationship management) program, you don’t need to use your cover letter to write a word problem where your six months experience from one internship, three months each from two classes, and two years at your last job equals three years.
  • Extra details in your examples, especially those that are found on your resume or don’t contribute to your strength as a candidate
  • Filtering language: This includes phrases like “I think” and “I feel.” You don’t “believe you can help” a company solve a problem, you can help a company solve a problem.
  • Overused or cliché phrases
  • Anything about what the job would do for you: Focus on what you can do for them.

8. Follow any instructions in the job description.

Finally, all of the above are just guidelines. The best indicator of what an employer is looking for in a cover letter—length-wise or otherwise—is the employer itself.

So if a job posting tells you that a cover letter should be a different length than we’ve indicated, default to the job description. If a job posting tells you that a cover letter should include different things than we’ve indicated, default to the job description. If a job posting tells you that you shouldn’t include a cover letter at all, default to the job description.

Elzinga Flash Seminar

Feature | 03/04/2019

These Interview Questions are Worth Preparing

If you're planning to interview with one of the Big 4 professional firms—DeloitteEYKPMGPwC—you likely know that you'll have to answer questions about your strengths and weaknesses, as well as field a number of so-called behavioral questions.

These behavioral questions typically begin with the phrase "Tell me about a time ..." and most often cover your ability to lead, deal with conflict, work on teams, work within tight time constraints, and deal with failure. And so, to nail any Big 4 interview, you'll most certainly need airtight answers to these questions.

In addition, you'll now need airtight answers to a host of other "Tell me about a time ..." questions.

Recently, we surveyed several thousand Big 4 professionals, asking them about life at their firms. One question we asked had to do with interview questions. And below are 11 new behavioral questions that Big 4 professionals told us their firms are now asking their interviewees.

1. Tell me about a time you set a goal in one of your previous positions and the steps you took to achieve it.

2. Tell me about a time when you had to manage conflicting priorities and still exceed someone's expectations.

3. Tell me about a time you used technology to effectively complete a task or analysis.

4. Tell me about a time you had to be a problem solver and the methods you used to solve the issue.

5. Tell me about a time you were proactive in soliciting performance feedback from a mentor or client.

6. Tell me about a time you enthusiastically led a work team through a major change initiative.

7. Tell me about a time you had to analyze data and present it to a group. How did you get the data, analyze it, and what was the outcome?

8. Tell me about a time you had to adapt to real change in your life.

9. Tell me about a time you had to influence others' opinions on a project or work situation.

10. Tell me about a time you went out of your way to learn.

11. Tell me about a time when you had to think on your feet. What was the outcome?

Of course, chances are slim that you'll receive all of these questions in one Big 4 interview. Still, it's going to be a good idea, if you are interviewing with a Big 4 firm, to make sure you prepare answers for each of these questions.

Here's how to go about dointg that: First, take a few minutes to think about a real time that you experienced each situation (never make up your answer; always base it on fact). Second, take a few minutes to collect your thoughts about what you honestly did in each circumstance (visualize yourself in that situation and try to recall all the details involved, what happened, what you did, the outcome, etc.). Third, take a few minutes to practice your response to each question (you can do this aloud or in your head).

Finally, remember that it's always better to over-prepare than under-prepare. And that this is especially true when it comes to interviewing.

Read More

Elzinga Flash Seminar

Feature | 05/26/2017

ECO Newsletter 5.2.17

One week Business Lab in D.C. for Majors!

Elzinga Flash Seminar

Feature | 08/01/2021

Article: Top Private Equity Firms Hiring College Grads!

A KKR talent exec says the private-equity firm’s college recruiting is expanding beyond core target schools

After years of relying on lateral hiring, private-equity firms are now battling with investment banks to recruit talent directly from college campuses to fill entry-level, often six-figure roles. 

But thanks to virtual recruitment, the group of schools that the private-equity giant KKR targets for entry-level talent has broadened. 

KKR launched its first formal analyst program in 2020, which it filled with college graduates, many of whom had interned at the firm. It hired 12 full-time analysts this way out of 762 collegiate applicants in 2020, and in 2021 it hired 19 out of 1,678, amounting to an acceptance rate of less than 2% in both years, Grace Koo, KKR’s head of talent acquisition, told Insider.

Before, the firm had hired junior investment professionals only after they landed jobs at other financial institutions, most often investment banks. While a majority of KKR’s junior hires still come to the firm laterally, Koo said campuses are now becoming an equally important pipeline.

The pandemic and switch to remote work helped KKR rethink how it approached on-campus recruiting, Koo said. 

KKR has been able to access more students through webinars and virtual tools this year. Koo said that the age-old practice of recruiting within a group of core "target" schools is now "almost an obsolete concept," as the firm no longer feels it must be physically present on a campus in order to connect with prospective hires.

"It’s no longer: Here are my four schools or here are the 12 schools I care about. Technology has completely leveled the playing field," Koo said. 

KKR received applications from students from close to 150 schools this year.

"There’s no way we ever would have been able to physically appear at these campuses," she said. "But with virtual tools, I think we can tell our story to so many more students and reach that diverse and rich pool of talent."

A spokesperson for KKR said they were unable to provide specific data on the diversity of the company’s candidate pool this year.

Before 2020, first-year investment-banking analysts would apply to KKR for "on-cycle" private-equity associate positions, committing two years in advance to starting those jobs. On-cycle recruiting for the class of 2020 associates was delayed throughout the industry as firms including KKR sought to give these investment-banking analysts more time to gain work experience before interviewing.

Koo said that firms expect to start recruiting on-cycle associates again this fall. She said KKR sees the late start to recruiting as a positive for first-year investment-banking analysts, who will have the chance to gain hands-on experience before making an informed choice about their post-banking career path.

Anita Ramaswamy July 17, 2021 at 05:45PM

View this article on the original webpage here.

Elzinga Flash Seminar

Feature | 11/22/2021

J-Term Class in Management Consulting - for Credit

Looking for a J-Term elective that combines career skills development, career exploration, and academic credit? You are invited to register for LPPS 3440: Introduction to Management Consulting and Strategic Decision Making. This course is a collaborative effort between the Batten School of Leadership and Public Policy and the UVA Career Center

Register for LPPS 3440 here

Course Dates & Times:

01/03/2022 - 01/14/2022

Mon, Tues., Wed., Thurs., Fri.

10:00am - 3:00pm

Focusing on skills development and career exploration aimed at making you an efficient problem-solver, this class is designed to set you up for success during the recruiting process and throughout your summer internship. The course is well-suited for those interested in the management consulting field and beyond. Students from all disciplines are encouraged to enroll as the skills gained will translate to a wide variety of careers (business, public policy, not-for-profit, law, healthcare, and more).

Course Objectives:

  • Introduce students to the field of management consulting.
  • Build core skills ranging from case and behavioral interview prep to excel and power point.
  • Develop a structured problem-solving toolkit to aid in internship-readiness.
  • Provide the unique opportunity to earn academic credit while working on a real-world consulting project for an actual client. (An amazing resume-building opportunity!)
  • Offer opportunities for formal networking, coaching, and mentoring from UVA Alumni at major consulting firms.
  • Continued case interview preparation support even after the course is over.


Each student team will be assigned an alumni mentor/coach from a major consulting firm. The “capstone” event will be case competition judged by UVA Alumni from notable consulting firms.


A few reflections from students who took the J-term course last year:


I would recommend LPPS 3440 to anyone looking to learn more about and get a jumpstart on management consulting recruiting, but also to those generally interested in learning a new and challenging way of problem-solving. Before taking Introduction to Management Consulting and Strategic Decision Making, I was unsure of what management consultants actually do, let alone if it was a career path for me. Professor Boler and the entire teaching team not only gave me the core practical and people skills to succeed in this field, but also helped me set goals and envision my niche in the consulting world. One of the best aspects of LPPS 3440 is that it offers career development, combined with academic credit. In particular, the instructional opportunities on how to succeed in behavioral and case interviews were key to recruitment for me. The coaching, mentoring, and networking opportunities are unparalleled. Professor Boler continues to offer case interview preparation long after the course, and is really available as a mentor and career coach for the class. This format of extended support keeps your problem-solving toolkit learned in-class honed and ready for interviews and internships. Furthermore, LPPS 3440 is a brilliant resume builder because it gives you an early, real-life consulting experience, but with the support of an academic background. It also provides an easy and exciting talking point for interviews, that shows employers you are ready for the challenges of an internship. Students interested in any field would benefit from.

-Anna Thompson, UVA 23 (Interning at McKinsey & Co this upcoming summer)


I cannot recommend LPPS 3440 enough if you are thinking of recruiting for consulting, business, technology, or any similar roles! More and more employers are requiring cases in their interview process (not just consulting firms) and this class will give you a head start in the case preparation process. Professor Boler will run through the basics of casing in class sessions and even after the course ends, he will continue to reach out for 1-on-1 mock case/behavioral interviews. In addition to case practice, this class will provide you with invaluable teamwork experiences and the opportunity to work on a consulting project for a real client. You will also have the chance to improve your Excel and PowerPoint skills, as well as network with alumni who will mentor you on your project. This class will provide you with a comprehensive introduction into the business world and I highly recommend it for anyone looking to develop their career skills!

-Osama Elsayed-Ali, UVA ’23 (Interning at Capital One this upcoming summer)

LPPS 3440: Introduction to Management Consulting and Strategic Decision Making with Professor Boler was integral to my success with the recruitment process for consulting. I took it during J-Term of my second year which allowed me to develop valuable technical skills, get a leg up with networking, and gain real-world experience ahead of the early internship recruitment cycle. Professor Boler is very engaging and truly dedicated to helping his students succeed throughout this course and beyond. From introducing me to alumni in firms such as Bain and Accenture, to running through mock case interviews, to learning how to effectively talk about my resume, Boler’s course allowed me to familiarize myself with the world of consulting. It was unlike any other course I have taken at UVA and I thoroughly enjoyed it.

-Andrea Madrigal, UVA ‘23 (Interning at McKinsey & Co. this upcoming summer)

Get more information, learn about the teaching team, and read more reflections from former LPPS 3440 students here

We hope you will consider this J-Term opportunity to earn academic credit while building your resume, expanding your skills, and creating a network of peers and professionals.


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